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Effects of two weeks of daily apnea training on diving response, spleen contraction, and erythropoiesis in novel subjects.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. Department of Human Movement Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway. (Sportech Environmental Physiology group)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. (Environmental Physiology Group)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
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2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 23, no 3, 340-348 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Three potentially protective responses to hypoxia have been reported to be enhanced in divers: (1) the diving response, (2) the blood-boosting spleen contraction, and (3) a long-term enhancement of hemoglobin concentration (Hb). Longitudinal studies, however, have been lacking except concerning the diving response. Ten untrained subjects followed a 2-week training program with 10 maximal effort apneas per day, with pre- and posttraining measurements during three maximal duration apneas, and an additional post-training series when the apneic duration was kept identical to that before training. Cardiorespiratory parameters and venous blood samples were collected across tests, and spleen diameters were measured via ultrasound imaging. Maximal apneic duration increased by 44 s (P < 0.05). Diving bradycardia developed 3 s earlier and was more pronounced after training (P < 0.05). Spleen contraction during apneas was similar during all tests. The arterial hemoglobin desaturation (SaO(2)) nadir after apnea was 84% pretraining and 89% after the duration-mimicked apneas post-training (P < 0.05), while it was 72% (P < 0.05) after maximal apneas post-training. Baseline Hb remained unchanged after training, but reticulocyte count increased by 15% (P < 0.05). We concluded that the attenuated SaO(2) decrease during mimic apneas was due mainly to the earlier and more pronounced diving bradycardia, as no enhancement of spleen contraction or Hb had occurred. Increased reticulocyte count suggests augmented erythropoiesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 23, no 3, 340-348 p.
Keyword [en]
Asphyxia; Bradycardia; Breath-hold training; Diving reflex; Reticulocytes; Spleen contraction
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15819DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01391.xISI: 000318787900019Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84877660891OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-15819DiVA: diva2:488773
Note

Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011

Available from: 2012-02-02 Created: 2012-02-02 Last updated: 2015-06-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cardiovascular, hematological and dietary means to cope with environmentally induced hypoxia in humans
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cardiovascular, hematological and dietary means to cope with environmentally induced hypoxia in humans
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2015. 87 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 213
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25016 (URN)978-91-88025-01-2 (ISBN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-06-01 Created: 2015-06-01 Last updated: 2015-06-15Bibliographically approved

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Engan, HaraldSchagatay, ErikaLodin-Sundström, AngelicaRichardson, Matt
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