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Effects of Speed and Slope on Ski Skating Efficiency and Kinematics
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3814-6246
2011 (English)In: Proceeding for American College for Sports Medicine in Denver, 2011, p. 229-230Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cross-country skiing is performed at varying speeds and slopes where a skier continuously needs to alter his technique in order to ski efficient.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of speed and slope on gross efficiency (GE) and kinematics while treadmill roller skiing employing the skating G3 technique.

METHODS: Seven male elite skiers performed nine 5-min submaximal stages. These stages were matched for low, moderate and high metabolic rates at inclinations of 2% (12, 17 and 22 km·h-1), 5% (9, 12 and 16 km·h-1) and 8% (6, 9 and 12 km·h-1), respectively. Oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio and blood lactate concentration were used to determine physiological response and calculate metabolic rate. Work against gravity and friction determined work rate. GE was calculated as work rate divided by metabolic rate. Kinematics were analyzed using the Qualisys Pro Reflex system (Qualisys AB, Gothenburg, Sweden).

RESULTS: A linear relationship between work rate and metabolic rate was found for each of the three different slopes (all P < 0.05). At the matched metabolic rates, work rates were always higher on steeper slopes (all P < 0.05). GE was consistently higher on steeper slopes, but increased at higher speed for all slopes, i.e, GE increased from ∼10% (at 2% inclination and 12 km·h-1) up to ∼16% (at 8% inclination and 12 km·h-1) (all P < 0.05). Cycle rate (CR) increased, whereas cycle time and cycle length decreased, both with increased speed and slope (all P < 0.05). Strong inter-individual correlations were found between GE and CR at the highest speed for all three slopes (all r = ∼0.90, P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: A linear relationship between work rate and metabolic rate, i.e., "Fenn effect", was found for cross-country skiing when treadmill roller skiing using a standardized slope and technique. Thus, GE slightly increases with speed from low to high metabolic rates. However, skiers show a higher efficiency and are able to obtain higher work rates on steeper slopes at a given metabolic rate. They do this by increasing CR, which is in contradiction with general findings in the literature. Yet, all skiers employ higher CR on steeper slopes, more efficient skiers were able to employ longer cycle lengths and lower cycle rates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. p. 229-230
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15596OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-15596DiVA, id: diva2:468439
Available from: 2011-12-20 Created: 2011-12-20 Last updated: 2012-01-22Bibliographically approved

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Holmberg, H-C

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