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Printed electromagnetic coupler with an embedded moisture sensor for ordinary passive RFID tags
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3790-0729
2011 (English)In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 32, no 12, 1767-1769 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This letter presents a printed UHF RFID sensor solution that indicates if a passive RFID tag has been exposed to a certain degree of moisture. The printed sensor operates as a write-once-read-many (WORM) resistive memory device as it permanently changes its resistance from about 10 to 10 after exposure to moisture or water. A printed coupling loop with an embedded WORM sensor is horizontally placed just above the surface of an ordinary UHF RFID tag. Electromagnetic coupling is used to modulate the properties of the tag antenna by changing its input impedance and introducing ohmic losses in proportion to the embedded sensor values. The passive RFID tag can change state from readable to unreadable when the WORM bit is set, i.e., is put in a low-resistance state. The proposed concept verifies that commercial RFID tags can be used as sensor tags by simply adding an electromagnetically coupled sensor as a sticker or by similar means, without the need for ohmic contacts between the sensor and the original RFID tag. © 2006 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 32, no 12, 1767-1769 p.
Keyword [en]
Antennas, Electromagnetic coupling, Humidity sensors, Printed electronics, RFID
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15301DOI: 10.1109/LED.2011.2170616ISI: 000297352500040Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-81855183763Local ID: STCOAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-15301DiVA: diva2:466379
Funder
EU, European Research Council, no. 215132
Available from: 2011-12-15 Created: 2011-12-15 Last updated: 2016-10-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Antenna-based passive UHF RFID sensor tags: Design and application
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antenna-based passive UHF RFID sensor tags: Design and application
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

RFID, as a low cost technology with a long life time, provides great potential for transmitting sensor data in combination with the ordinary ID number. The sensor can, for example, be integrated either in the chip or in the antenna of an RFID tag.This thesis focuses on the design of antenna-based UHF RFID sensor tags as wireless sensors at the lowest possible cost level compatible with standard communication systems in logistics. The applications of the sensor tags, in this work, mainly target remote humidity sensing. Antenna-based sensory UHF RFID tags utilize the influence that the physical or chemical parameters to be sensed have on the electrical properties of a tag antenna. The variations of the electrical properties of the tag antenna can be measured in many ways. In the thesis, a description is provided as to how these variations are normally measured by an RFID reader without any other assistant equipment. Three structures of antenna-based RFID sensor tags are presented with detailed characterizations. The first one utilizes the sensitivity of the antenna to the surrounding environment to construct RFID sensor tags, where a moisture absorbing layer providing wetness/humidity sensor functionality is placed on the RFID tag antenna to increase the humidity concentration surrounding the tag antenna and the thesis describes how to overcome certain limitations due to disturbances associated with background materials. The second structure directly integrates a small resistive sensor element into an RFID tag antenna and the sensor information can thus modulate the antenna performance by means of galvanic contact. The third structure embeds a small resistive sensor element into a loop which is positioned on top of the tag antenna and the sensor information can thus modulate the performance of the tag antenna by means of electromagnetic coupling. Both theoretical analysis and fullwave simulations are presented for the latter two sensor tag structures in order to characterize the performance of the sensor tags. An ultra-low cost printed humidity sensor with memory functionality is also designed and thoroughly characterized for integration into RFID tag antennas by means of galvanic contact or electromagnetic coupling. The sensor is a 1-bit write-once-read-many (WORM) memory printed using conductive ink. The WORM works as a pure resistive humidity sensor and can provide information about an historical event. The WORM sensor is presented by introducing its geometry, characterizingits behavior in humidity and explaining the principle of the humidity effect. The WORM sensors are also integrated into the RFID tags by means of both galvanic contact and electromagnetic coupling in order to experimentally verify the two concepts. To lower the cost of the RFID tags, the antennas are normally printed, milledor etched on flexible substrates using low-cost high-speed manufacturing methods which in some cases cause a high degree of edge roughness. The edge roughness will affect the behavior of the antenna, however, the characteristics of edge roughness on RFID antennas have previously not received any significant attention. Unforeseen antenna behavior can affect the antenna-based sensor tags, thus the influence of edge roughness is also investigated in the thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2013. 84 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 157
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-19889 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-87103-99-5 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Public defence
2013-06-18, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved

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