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Investigation of Architectures for Wireless Visual Sensor Nodes
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1923-3843
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless visual sensor network is an emerging field which has proveduseful in many applications, including industrial control and monitoring,surveillance, environmental monitoring, personal care and the virtual world.Traditional imaging systems used a wired link, centralized network, highprocessing capabilities, unlimited storage and power source. In manyapplications, the wired solution results in high installation and maintenancecosts. However, a wireless solution is the preferred choice as it offers lessmaintenance, infrastructure costs and greater scalability.The technological developments in image sensors, wirelesscommunication and processing platforms have paved the way for smartcamera networks usually referred to as Wireless Visual Sensor Networks(WVSNs). WVSNs consist of a number of Visual Sensor Nodes (VSNs)deployed over a large geographical area. The smart cameras can performcomplex vision tasks using limited resources such as batteries or alternativeenergy sources, embedded platforms, a wireless link and a small memory.Current research in WVSNs is focused on reducing the energyconsumption of the node so as to maximise the life of the VSN. To meet thischallenge, different software and hardware solutions are presented in theliterature for the implementation of VSNs.The focus in this thesis is on the exploration of energy efficientreconfigurable architectures for VSNs by partitioning vision tasks on software,hardware platforms and locality. For any application, some of the vision taskscan be performed on the sensor node after which data is sent over the wirelesslink to the server where the remaining vision tasks are performed. Similarly,at the VSN, vision tasks can be partitioned on software and the hardwareplatforms.In the thesis, all possible strategies are explored, by partitioning visiontasks on the sensor node and on the server. The energy consumption of thesensor node is evaluated for different strategies on software platform. It isobserved that performing some of the vision tasks on the sensor node andsending compressed images to the server where the remaining vision tasks areperformed, will have lower energy consumption.In order to achieve better performance and low power consumption,Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are introduced for theimplementation of the sensor node. The strategies with reasonable designtimes and costs are implemented on hardware-software platform. Based onthe implementation of the VSN on the FPGA together with micro-controller,the lifetime of the VSN is predicted using the measured energy values of theplatforms for different processing strategies. The implementation resultsprove our analysis that a VSN with such characteristics will result in a longerlife time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2011. , p. 80
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 66
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14388Local ID: STCISBN: 978-91-86694-45-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-14388DiVA, id: diva2:436583
Presentation
2011-06-10, O102, Sundsvall, 10:27 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-08-24 Created: 2011-08-24 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Exploration of Target Architecture for aWireless Camera Based Sensor Node
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploration of Target Architecture for aWireless Camera Based Sensor Node
2010 (English)In: 28th Norchip Conference, NORCHIP 2010, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 1-4Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The challenges associated with wireless vision sensor networks are low energy consumption, less bandwidth and limited processing capabilities. In order to meet these challenges different approaches are proposed. Research in wireless vision sensor networks has been focused on two different assumptions, first is sending all data to the central base station without local processing, second approach is based on conducting all processing locally at the sensor node and transmitting only the final results. Our research is focused on partitioning the vision processing tasks between Senor node and central base station. In this paper we have added the exploration dimension to perform some of the vision tasks such as image capturing, background subtraction, segmentation and Tiff Group4 compression on FPGA while communication on microcontroller. The remaining vision processing tasks i.e. morphology, labeling, bubble remover and classification are processed on central base station. Our results show that the introduction of FPGA for some of the visual tasks will result in a longer life time for the visual sensor node while the architecture is still programmable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2010
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12503 (URN)10.1109/NORCHIP.2010.5669490 (DOI)2-s2.0-78751533214 (Scopus ID)978-142448973-2 (ISBN)
Conference
28th Norchip Conference, NORCHIP 2010; Tampere; 15 November 2010 through 16 November 2010; Category number CFP10828-ART; Code 83479
Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-09 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
2. Exploration of tasks partitioning between hardware software and locality for a wireless camera based vision sensor node
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploration of tasks partitioning between hardware software and locality for a wireless camera based vision sensor node
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Proceedings - 6th International Symposium on Parallel Computing in Electrical Engineering, PARELEC 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 127-132Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we have explored different possibilities for partitioning the tasks between hardware, software and locality for the implementation of the vision sensor node, used in wireless vision sensor network. Wireless vision sensor network is an emerging field which combines image sensor, on board computation and communication links. Compared to the traditional wireless sensor networks which operate on one dimensional data, wireless vision sensor networks operate on two dimensional data which requires higher processing power and communication bandwidth. The research focus within the field of wireless vision sensor networks have been on two different assumptions involving either sending raw data to the central base station without local processing or conducting all processing locally at the sensor node and transmitting only the final results. Our research work focus on determining an optimal point of hardware/software partitioning as well as partitioning between local and central processing, based on minimum energy consumption for vision processing operation. The lifetime of the vision sensor node is predicted by evaluating the energy requirement of the embedded platform with a combination of FPGA and micro controller for the implementation of the vision sensor node. Our results show that sending compressed images after pixel based tasks will result in a longer battery life time with reasonable hardware cost for the vision sensor node. © 2011 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
Keyword
Hardware/Software Partioning, Image Processing, Reconfigurable Architecture, Vision Sensor Node, Wireless Vision Sensor Networks, Battery life time, Communication bandwidth, Compressed images, Embedded platforms, Energy requirements, Hardware cost, Hardware/software partitioning, Local processing, Minimum energy, Optimal points, Partioning, Processing power, Vision processing, Vision sensors, Wireless cameras, Work Focus, Computer hardware, Electrical engineering, Energy utilization, Engineering research, Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), Parallel architectures, Sensors, Telecommunication equipment, Telecommunication systems, Wireless networks, Sensor nodes
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14195 (URN)10.1109/PARELEC.2011.21 (DOI)2-s2.0-79958725347 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)9780769543970 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
6th International Symposium on Parallel Computing in Electrical Engineering, PARELEC 2011; Luton; 4 April 2011 through 5 April 2011; Category number E4397; Code 85105
Available from: 2011-07-19 Created: 2011-07-19 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
3. Exploration of Local and Central Processing for a Wireless Camera Based Sensor Node
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploration of Local and Central Processing for a Wireless Camera Based Sensor Node
2010 (English)In: International Conference on Signals and Electronic Systems, ICSES'10 - Conference Proceeding 2010, Article number 5595231, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 147-150Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless vision sensor network is an emerging field which combines image sensor, on board computation and communication links. Compared to the traditional wireless sensor networks which operate on one dimensional data, wireless vision sensor networks operate on two dimensional data which requires both higher processing power and communication bandwidth. The research focus within the field of wireless vision sensor network has been based on two different assumptions involving either sending data to the central base station without local processing or conducting all processing locally at the sensor node and transmitting only the final results. In this paper we focus on determining an optimal point for intelligence partitioning between the sensor node and the central base station and by exploring compression methods. The lifetime of the visual sensor node is predicted by evaluating the energy consumption for different levels of intelligence partitioning at the sensor node. Our results show that sending compressed images after segmentation will result in a longer life for the sensor node.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2010
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12602 (URN)000299392000035 ()2-s2.0-78649273063 (Scopus ID)978-839047434-2 (ISBN)978-1-4244-5307-8 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Signals and Electronic Systems, ICSES'10; Gliwice; 7 September 2010 through 10 September 2010; Category number CFP1057D-ART; Code 82386
Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2013-11-11Bibliographically approved
4. Implementation of wireless Vision Sensor Node for Characterization of Particles in Fluids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of wireless Vision Sensor Node for Characterization of Particles in Fluids
Show others...
2012 (English)In: IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology (Print), ISSN 1051-8215, E-ISSN 1558-2205, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 1634-1643Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wireless Vision Sensor Networks (WVSNs) have a number of wireless Vision Sensor Nodes (VSNs), often spread over a large geographical area. Each node has an image capturing unit, a battery or alternative energy source, a memory unit, a light source, a wireless link and a processing unit. The challenges associated with WVSNs include low energy consumption, low bandwidth, limited memory and processing capabilities. In order to meet these challenges, our research is focused on the exploration of energy efficient reconfigurable architectures for VSN. In this work, the design/research challenges associated with the implementation of VSN on different computational platforms such as micro-controller, FPGA and server, are explored. In relation to this, the effect on the energy consumption and the design complexity at the node, when the functionality is moved from one platform to another are analyzed. Based on the implementation of the VSN on embedded platforms, the lifetime of the VSN is predicted using the measured energy values of the platforms for different implementation strategies. The implementation results show that an architecture, where the compressed images after pixel based operation are transmitted, realize a WVSN system with low energy consumption. Moreover, the complex post processing tasks are moved to a server, with reduced constraints. 

Keyword
Reconfigurable architecture, Image processing, Wireless vision sensor networks, Wireless vision sensor node.
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14389 (URN)10.1109/TCSVT.2012.2202189 (DOI)000313971700010 ()2-s2.0-84875631744 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2011-08-24 Created: 2011-08-24 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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