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How do elite cross-country skiers adapt to different double poling frequencies at low to high speeds?
Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, Christian Doppler Lab Biomech Skiing, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria .
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3814-6246
2011 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, no 6, p. 1103-1119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the study was to examine the biomechanical-physiological effects of different frequencies using the double poling technique in cross-country skiing. Nine elite skiers roller-skied using poling frequencies of 40, 60 and 80 cycles·min-1 (Pf40, Pf60, Pf80) at submaximal treadmill speeds (12, 18, 24 km·h-1). Cycle characteristics, pole forces, joint angles and physiological responses were measured. Comparing Pf40 versus Pf60 versus Pf80 (all variables different at P < 0.05), absolute poling time decreased by up to 46%, as did absolute and relative (% cycle time) recovery times, at almost all speeds. Peak force, impulse of force and time to peak force decreased, whereas impact force increased with frequency at almost all speeds. Elbow ranges of motion and angular velocities, hip and knee angle maxima and flexion/extension ranges of motion per cycle decreased, whereas hip and knee angle minima, ranges of motion per minute and angular extension velocities during recovery phase all increased with frequency at nearly all speeds. Oxygen uptake and heart rate increased up to 13% (Pf40-60 versus Pf80) at all speeds. Pulmonary ventilation increased most distinctly at the highest speed. Blood lactate was lowest at Pf60 and highest at Pf80 (J-shape curve) at 24 km·h-1. Gross efficiency decreased with higher frequency at all speeds. These results demonstrate different biomechanical and physiological demands at different frequencies with the beneficial effects of lower poling frequencies at submaximal speeds. For training purposes, we suggest that cross-country skiers would benefit by training with different poling frequencies to vary their training load.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 111, no 6, p. 1103-1119
Keywords [en]
Biomechanics; Cadence; Kinematics; Kinetics; Lactate; Oxygen cost
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12294DOI: 10.1007/s00421-010-1736-8ISI: 000290539100022Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79958092064OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-12294DiVA, id: diva2:372526
Projects
Integrative Physiologi & BiomechanicsAvailable from: 2010-11-25 Created: 2010-11-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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Holmberg, Hans-Christer

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