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Review: Predicting performance in competitive apnea diving. Part II: dynamic apnea
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
2010 (English)In: Diving and hyperbaric medicine, ISSN 1833-3516, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 11-22Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Part I of this series of articles identified the main physiological factors defining the limits of static apnea, while this paper reviews the factors involved when physical work is added in the dynamic distance disciplines, performed in shallow water in a swimming pool. Little scientific work has been done concerning the prerequisites and limitations of swimming with or without fins whilst breath-holding to extreme limits. Apneic duration influences all competitive apnea disciplines, and can be prolonged by any means that increase gas storage or tolerance to asphyxia, or reduce metabolic rate, as reviewed in the first article. For horizontal underwater distance swimming, the main challenge is to restrict metabolism despite the work, and to direct blood flow only to areas where demand is greatest, to allow sustained function. Here, work economy, local tissue energy and oxygen stores and the anaerobic capacity of the muscles are key components. Improvements in swimming techniques and, especially in swimming with fins, equipment have already contributed to enhanced performance and may do so further. High lactate levels observed after dynamic competition dives suggest a high anaerobic component, and muscle hypoxia could ultimately limit muscle work and swimming distance. However, the frequency of syncope, especially in swimming without fins, suggests that cerebral oxygenation may often be compromised before this occurs. In these pool disciplines, safety is high and the dive can be interrupted by the competitor or safety diver within seconds. The safety routines in place during pool competitions are described.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 40, no 1, p. 11-22
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11631ISI: 000277753100006Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77951862141OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-11631DiVA, id: diva2:323296
Available from: 2010-06-10 Created: 2010-06-10 Last updated: 2013-02-05Bibliographically approved

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Schagatay, Erika

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