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Rolling resistance for treadmill roller skiing
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
2008 (English)In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, no 1, 23-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Modern treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical performance under laboratory conditions using classical and freestyle techniques on roller skis. The differences in performance between tests are quite small for elite athletes, and it is therefore of great importance to control the rolling resistance of the roller skis. Otherwise different physiological tests cannot be accurately compared.

This study shows that during a warm-up period of  30 minutes the coefficient of rolling resistance (µR) decreases to about 60-65% and 70-75% of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively.

Simultaneous measurements of temperature and µR shows that stabilized rolling resistance corresponds to a certain running temperature for a given normal force on the roller ski.

Tests were also performed on the influence on µR of normal force, velocity and inclination. Normal forces produced significant influence on µR , while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in µR.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer , 2008. Vol. 11, no 1, 23-29 p.
Keyword [en]
Incline, Normal force, Roller skis, Velocity, Warm up, Sport science, Sport technology
Keyword [sv]
Idrottsvetenskap, Sportteknologi
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Physiology Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-6361DOI: 10.1007/s12283-008-0004-1Local ID: 4197OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-6361DiVA: diva2:31400
Projects
Sportstech
Available from: 2008-11-19 Created: 2008-11-19 Last updated: 2012-06-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The rolling resistances of roller skis and their effects on human performance during treadmill roller skiing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The rolling resistances of roller skis and their effects on human performance during treadmill roller skiing
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical performance in a laboratory environment using classical and freestyle techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance coefficient, µR, in order to allow correct comparisons between the results, as well as providing the opportunity to study work economy between different athletes, test occasions and core techniques.

Thus, one of the aims of this thesis was to evaluate how roller skis’ µR is related to warm-up, mass, velocity and inclination of the treadmill. It was also necessary to investigate the methodological variability of the rolling resistance measurement system, RRMS, specially produced for the experiments, with a reproducibility study in order to indicate the validity and reliability of the results.

The aim was also to study physiological responses to different µR during roller skiing with freestyle and classical roller skis and techniques on the treadmill as a case in which all measurements were carried out in stationary and comparable conditions.

Finally, the aim was also to investigate the work economy of amateurs and female and male junior and senior cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing, i.e. as a function of skill, age and gender, including whether differences in body mass causes significant differences in external power per kg due to differences in the roller skis’ µR.

The experiments showed that during a warm-up period of 30 minutes, µR decreased to about 60-65% and 70-75% of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively. For another 30 minutes of rolling no significant change was found. Simultaneous measurements of roller ski temperature and mR showed that stabilized mR corresponds to a certain running temperature for a given normal force on the roller ski. The study of the influence on mR of normal force, velocity and inclination produced a significant influence of normal force on mR, while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in mR. The reproducibility study of the RRMS showed no significant differences between paired measurements with either classical or the freestyle roller skis.

The study of the effects on physiological variables of ~50% change in µR,showed that during submaximal steady state exercise, external power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed, while there were non significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed and this occurred without a significantly changed maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion was non significant or small.

The final part of the thesis, which focused on work economy, found no significant difference between the four groups of elite competitors, i.e. between the two genders and between the junior and senior elite athletes. It was only the male amateurs who significantly differed among the five studied groups. The study also showed that the external power per kg was significantly different between the two genders due to differences in body mass and mR, i.e. the lighter female testing groups were roller skiing with a relatively heavier rolling resistance coefficient compared to the heavier testing groups of male participants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Kopieringen Mid Sweden University, 2010. 34 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 42
Keyword
Blood lactate, cycle length, cycle rate, heart rate, oxygen uptake, performance, power, roller skis, rolling resistance, ratings of perceived exertion, work economy
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-10844 (URN)978-91-86073-60-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2010-01-13, Q341, Akademigatan 1, Mittuniversitetet, Östersund, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Sporttech
Available from: 2010-01-07 Created: 2010-01-04 Last updated: 2011-09-05Bibliographically approved
2. Roller skis' rolling resistance and grip characteristics: influences on physiological and performance measures in cross-country skiers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Roller skis' rolling resistance and grip characteristics: influences on physiological and performance measures in cross-country skiers
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to investigate roller ski characteristics; classical and freestyle roller skis’ rolling resistance coefficients (μR) and classical style roller skis’ static friction coefficients (μS), and to study the influence of different μR and μS on cross-country skiers’ performance and both physiological and biomechanical indices. The aim was also to study differences in skiing economy and efficiency between recreational skiers, female and male junior and senior elite cross-country skiers.The experiments showed that during a time period of 30 minutes of rolling on a treadmill (warm-up), μR decreased significantly (p<0.05) to about 60-65 % and 70-75 % of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively. Also, there was a significant influence of normal force on μR, while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in μR.The study of the influence on physiological variables of a ~50 % change in μR showed that during submaximal steady rate exercise, external power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed, while there were non-significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed and this occurred without a change in maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion was non-significant or small.The study of classical style roller skis μS showed values that were five to eight times more than the values of μS reported from on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis.The subsequent physiological and biomechanical experiments with different μS showed a significantly lower skiing economy (~14 % higher v̇O2), higher heart rate, lower propulsive forces coming from the legs and shorter time to exhaustion (~30 %) when using a different type of roller ski with a μS similar to on-snow skiing, while there was no difference between tests when using different pairs of roller skis with a (similar) higher μS.The part of the thesis which focused on skiing economy and efficiency as a function of skill, age and gender, showed that the elite cross-country skiers had better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18 %) compared with the recreational skiers, and the senior elite had better economy and higher efficiency (4-5 %) than their junior counterparts, while no differences could be found between the genders.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna avhandling var att undersöka fristils- och klassiska rullskidors rullmotståndskoefficienter (μR) och klassiska rullskidors statiska friktionskoefficienter (μS) samt effekter av olika μR och μS på längdskidåkares prestation vid rullskidåkning på rullande band. Syftet var även att undersöka s.k. åkekonomi och mekanisk verkningsgrad mellan motionärer och kvinnliga och manliga junior- och seniorlängdskidåkare på elitnivå.Experimenten visade att under en period av 30 minuters kontinuerligt rullande, på rullande band, så sjönk μR signifikant (p<0.05) till 60-65 % och 70-75 % av initiala värden, för fristils- respektive klassiska rullskidor. Undersökandet av olika normalkrafter, hastigheter och lutningars påverkan på μR resulterade i en signifikant, negativ korrelation för μR som funktion av normalkraft, medan olika hastigheter och lutningar endast medförde små förändringar av μR.Studien som undersökte fysiologiska effekter av olika μR visade, vid submaximala konstanta arbetsbelastningar, att yttre effekt, syreupptagning, hjärtfrekvens och blodlaktat förändrades signifikant vid ~50 % förändring av μR. Försökspersonernas frekvens och sträcka per frekvens samt skattning av upplevd ansträngning resulterade dock i mestadels icke signifikanta eller små förändringar. Protokollen med successivt ökande arbetsbelastning (maxtest) resulterade i signifikant förändrad tid till utmattning, vid ~50 % förändring av μR. Detta inträffade utan signifikant skillnad i maximal syreupptagning, hjärtfrekvens och blodlaktat, vilket även mestadels gällde för skattning av upplevd ansträngning.Experimenten som undersökte klassiska rullskidors μS visade att dessa erhöll värden som är fem till åtta gånger högre än vad som rapporterats från studier av μS på snö med fästvallade skidor.Den efterföljande studien som undersökte fysiologiska och biomekaniska influenser av olika μS visade, vid submaximala konstanta arbetsbelastningar, att åkekonomin försämrades (~14 % högre syreförbrukning), hjärtfrekvensen ökade, den framåtdrivande kraften från benen på rullskidorna minskade samt att det blev kortare tid till utmattning (~30 %), vid maxtest, när skidåkarna använde rullskidor med en μS i likhet med vad som rapporterats för skidåkning på snö. För arbetsförsöken med olika rullskidor av olika fabrikat med en högre, och likartad, μS förelåg ingen skillnad i de undersökta variablerna.Studien som undersökte åkekonomi och mekanisk verkningsgrad som funktion av prestationsnivå, ålder och kön, visade att elitskidåkarna hade bättre åkekonomi och verkningsgrad (5-18 %) i jämförelse med motionärerna, att seniorerna hade bättre åkekonomi och verkningsgrad (4-5 %) än juniorerna och att ingen skillnad kunde konstateras mellan könen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2012
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 125
Keyword
Adjustable grip, blood lactate, centre of pressure, cycle length, cycle rate, economy, efficiency, friction coefficient, heart rate, normal force, OBLA, oxygen uptake, power, ratcheted wheel, ratings of perceived exertion, roller skis, rolling resistance, tangential force, time to exhaustion
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16446 (URN)978-91-87103-15-5 (ISBN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-06-14 Created: 2012-06-14 Last updated: 2012-08-01Bibliographically approved

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