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Leadership and organizational behaviour: Similarities between three award-winning organizations
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7322-9346
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7621-2649
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
2009 (English)In: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, Vol. 3, no 4, 327-345 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine if healthy and successful organizations are working accordingly to Quality Management. The purpose is also to describe how the organizations are working.

 

Methodology/Approach

Three Swedish organizations that have shown excellence in leadership, internal partnership, working environment and profitability have been examined, to find out what methodologies they have been used for their success. To find out if the healthy and successful organizations are working accordingly to Quality Management, Deming’s 14 point list have been used as analysing tool.

 

Findings

Indentified methodologies used by the healthy and successful organisations are described.  Viewed through our analysis, a relationship between the three examined healthy and successful organizations and Quality Management is indicated.

 

Practical implications

Working with the methodologies described in the paper, the three organizations have improved co-worker health. Other organizations could probably adopt the identified and described methodologies to improve the health of their co-workers and effectiveness in the organization.

 

Originality/value

Concerning the performance evaluation and the continuous improvement component in Quality Management, substantial contributions could be made to the health area by applying the tools that the quality area have used for such a long time to improve the quality outcomes.

Quality and health aspects have common success factors, and a focus on high quality could be seen as positive for health outcomes.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 3, no 4, 327-345 p.
Keyword [en]
Quality Management, health, leadership, methodologies, performance, effectiveness, Quality Technology and Management, TQM, Quality control, leadership; successful organisations; quality management; organisational effectiveness; organisational behaviour; workplace health promotion; management practice; work environment; hospitals; manufacturing; Sweden; corporate strategy; corporate vision; communication strategies; learning culture; worker conversations; management by walking around; customer satisfaction; leadership chain modelling; Best Workplace in Sweden award
Keyword [sv]
Kvalitetsteknik, Kvalitet
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-6166DOI: 10.1504/IJMP.2009.026960Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-68049130008Local ID: 4500OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-6166DiVA: diva2:31205
Available from: 2008-12-07 Created: 2008-12-07 Last updated: 2016-09-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On the Relationship between Sustainable Health and Quality Management: Leadership and organizational behaviours from Swedish organizations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Relationship between Sustainable Health and Quality Management: Leadership and organizational behaviours from Swedish organizations
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sickness absence not only causes significant costs for organizations but also leads to other negative consequences for individuals and societies. Previous research has shown that working with organizational values within Quality Management affects job satisfaction and results in increased profitability and customer satisfaction. There would, in addition, seem to be great gains if managers, by working with Quality Management, can manage to establish sustainable health among co-workers.

 

The purpose of the research described in this thesis was to examine how Quality Management could be practised in order to support sustainable health among co-workers and what it is within Quality Management that influences sustainable co-worker health. Accordingly, the purpose was also to contribute to the understanding of the relation between sustainable health and Quality Management. To fulfil this purpose, three research questions were asked. The results are described in three parts related to the three research questions and are the product of six case studies carried out in seven different organizations.

 

Interviews with managers and workshops with co-workers were carried out to investigate how Quality Management can be practised within organizations in order to promote sustainable co-worker health. These investigations took place in four organizations that had received awards. Three had been awarded for their excellence in leadership, work environment and co-workership, along with improved profitability; one for its successful implementation of quality programmes. The results are descriptions of methodologies, behaviours, values and organization structure used by the organizations to support sustainable health. These are exemplified with practical examples. The methodologies, behaviours, values, and organizational structure are considered possible for other organizations to adopt and all of them are already supported in the quality, management and leadership literature. Support from the health literature is also found for most of the behaviours, methodologies, values, and organizational structure.

 

Surveys and focus groups interviews were carried out in five different organizations in order to find out what is of most importance when practising Quality Management in order to influence sustainable co-worker health. The results pointed to ‘Leadership Commitment’ as the most central of the values for achieving sustainable health among the co-workers. Furthermore, the values ‘Continuous Improvements’, ‘Participation of Everybody’ and ‘Customer Orientation’ were found to be related to sustainable health among the co-workers. The values ‘Leadership Commitment’ and the value ‘Participation of Everybody’ were then further elaborated to find aspects of importance for sustainable co-worker health. From the value ‘Leadership Commitment’ four aspects were extracted. These were labelled ‘Empathy’, ‘Presence and Communication’, ‘Integrity’, and ‘Continuity’. The results showed relations between the value ‘Leadership Commitment’ within Quality Management and sustainable health among the co-workers. Thus it is essential for leaders to work in accordance with that value to achieve results in the work towards sustainable co-worker health. The results indicate that this requires management and leadership that are characterized by the aspects above. The leaders have to:

 

• Really understand the co-workers and their work situation.

• Be present and available for co-workers and communicate with them.

• Act as a role model, be fair and keep their promises.

• Stay in their positions long enough to build up trust and confidence.

 

The value ‘Participation of Everybody’ has also been shown to be related to sustainable health among the co-workers. This indicates that it is important to work in accordance with that value in the struggle to achieve sustainable health among the co-workers. The results imply that this value is characterized by the aspects ‘Development’, ‘Influence’ and ‘Being informed’. This could be done by:

 

• Giving the co-workers opportunities to develop their skills and develop personally.

• Letting the co-workers influence their work situation and taking suggestions and proposals from them seriously.

• Having good communication within the whole organization.

 

To manage this; the managers have to delegate more and empower the co-workers.

 

These results were then further elaborated within another organization in order to develop a measurement approach that can clarify the extent to which the values, ‘Leadership Commitment’ and ‘Participation of Everybody’ permeate an organization. The developed measurement approach can be used to clarify the extent to which the organization is practising the health-promoting values within Quality Management and in what areas improvement is needed to increase co-worker health. The approach can also help the organization to detect those shortcomings within the management which are important for co-worker well-being. The developed measurement approach can be used to establish and enhance co-worker health by improving their well-being, satisfaction and motivation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2009. 102 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 71
Keyword
Quality Management, Sustainable health, Leadership, Values, Quality Technology and Management, TQM, Quality control, Kvalitetsteknik, Kvalitet
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8985 (URN)978-91-86073-37-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-05-28, Q221, Mittuniversitetet, Akademigatan 1, Östersund, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-27 Created: 2009-05-27 Last updated: 2009-09-04Bibliographically approved
2. The effect of leadership values, behaviors and methodologies on quality and health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of leadership values, behaviors and methodologies on quality and health
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Syftet med den forskning som presenteras i denna avhandling är att bidra till ökad kunskap om hur ledarskap kan praktiseras för att främja både medarbetarnas hälsa och organisationers kvalitetsarbete. Tre forskningsfrågor är ställda: 1.Hur relaterar ledarnas värderingar till ledarnas beteende samt aspekter av hälsa och kvalitet?2.Hur relaterar ledarnas beteende till aspekter av hälsa och kvalitet?3.Hur relaterar ledarnas arbetssätt till aspekter av hälsa och kvalitet?Forskningen baserar sig på två fallstudier. Fallstudie I berör tre framgångsrika arbetsplatser som fått utmärkelsen Sveriges bästa arbetsplats. Fokus i denna fallstudie är huvudsakligen på de arbetssätt som används. Fallstudie II avser åtta arbetsplatser i Jämtland och det är särskilt värderingar, beteenden och arbetssätt som har studerats. Rörande ledarskap är Teori X och Teori Y använd som teoribas för att studera ledarnas värderingar. Den tredimensionella ledarbeteendeteorin (förändring, uppgift, relation) är använd när ledarnas beteende mäts och diskuteras. Både kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder är använda i forskningen. Ledare med X-inriktning på ledarvärderingarna har lägre resultat när medarbetarna värderar organisationens kvalitetsaspekter och samtliga tre dimensioner rörande ledarbeteendet. Vissa indikationer finns att organisationer med Y-orienterade ledare har medarbetare med bättre hälsa. Den ledarskapsprofil som har de bästa resultaten rörande kvalitetsaspekter och hälsoutfall har höga värden på alla tre dimensioner med högsta värdet på relation, följt av förändring på liknande nivå samt även uppgiftsorienteringen hög men lägre än de andra två dimensionerna. Gemen-samma arbetssätt hos framgångsrika organisationer har identifierats och presenterats. Mönster mellan framgångsrika organisationer i studie I och II har identifierats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet, 2007. 151 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 20
Keyword
Leadership, Health, Quality, Organizational control, Workplace health promotion, Quality Technology and Management, TQM, Quality control, Kvalitetsteknik, Kvalitet
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9330 (URN)
Presentation
(English)
Available from: 2009-07-10 Created: 2009-07-10 Last updated: 2014-10-03Bibliographically approved
3. Leadership for Quality, Effectiveness and Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leadership for Quality, Effectiveness and Health
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Leadership, quality, effectiveness and health are important factors in the achievement of organisational success. Three questions are addressed to study these elements:

1. How do leadership values relate to leadership behaviours, quality methodologies and health in organisations?

2. How do leadership behaviours relate to effectiveness and health in organisations?

3. How can leadership tools be designed and used to promote health in organisations?

The research is based on five studies from three research projects. This research is reported in five papers. Study I concerned eight organisations in the middle of Sweden; the focus was on leadership values and behaviours. Study II concerned three successful organisations that received the award, ‘Sweden’s number one workplace’. Focus in this study was mainly on leadership behaviours. Study III combined results from Studies I and II with a focus on successful leadership behaviours. Study IV concerned the eight organisations in Study I. A leadership tool in the form of a Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) model was developed and evaluated. Study V was of two organisations in Sweden; the focus in that work was on the use of a leadership tool control chart designed to give managers statistically valid early warning signals about health in their organisations. Theory X and Y together with the three-dimensional leadership behaviour theory were used to assess leadership values and behaviours. The theory surrounding PDSA and control charts were used to develop leadership tools. The dimension of health is defined from a salutogenic humanistic perspective; which emphasizes individual well-being. The dimension of quality is defined as the ability to satisfy or exceed needs and expectations. Effectiveness is defined as the extent to which externally and internally defined objectives are fulfilled.

Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used. Interviews, seminars with employees, collection of human resource and effectiveness figures, and questionnaires completed by managers and subordinates were used to collect data.

Managers with more Theory Y-oriented leadership values were rated by subordinates as high concerning quality methodologies and leadership behaviour dimensions. The subordinates of these managers tended to be healthier.

Two of the studies identified common groups of leadership behaviours in effective and healthy organisations: strategy and vision, communication and information, authority and responsibility, learning culture, worker conversations, plainness and simplicity, humanity and trust, walking around and reflective personal leadership.

These leadership behaviours fit into a leadership profile where all three of the dimensions of structure, relation and change are present. Of the three, the relation dimension is strongest and concluded to be a universal dimension.

The developed PDSA model seems to be a leadership tool that influences both leadership values and behaviour, particularly in the area of relation-oriented leadership behaviours. An early warning system built on CUSUM- and Shewhartcharts concerning the health indicators of self-assessed general health and new sickcases per employee was also found to be a powerful and usable leadership tool.

For future research, the explorative research findings can be quantitatively tested using representative and preferably cross-national data, with a longitudinal design.

Abstract [sv]

Ledarskap, kvalitet, effektivitet och hälsa är viktiga faktorer för en organisations framgång. Tre forskningsfrågor är ställda:

1. Hur relaterar ledarskapsvärderingar till ledarskapsbeteenden, arbetssätt för kvalitet samt hälsa i organisationer?

2. Hur relaterar ledarskapsbeteenden till effektivitet och hälsa i organisationer?

3. Hur kan hälsofrämjande ledarskapsverktyg utformas och användas i organisationer?

Forskningen är baserad på fem studier med empirisk bas i tre forskningsprojekt. Resultaten är avrapporterade i fem artiklar. Studie I inkluderar åtta organisationer i mellansverige; fokus är på värderingar och beteenden inom ledarskapet. Studie II inkluderar tre framgångsrika organisationer som har erhållit utmärkelsen “Sveriges bästa arbetsplats” och fokus är framförallt på ledarskapsbeteenden. Studie III är en kombination av resultat från Studie I och II och fokuserar på framgångsrikt ledarskap. Studie IV inkluderar organisationerna från Studie I, och ett ledarskapsverktyg i form av en PDSA modell är utvecklad och utvärderad. Studie V inkluderar två organisationer och fokuserar på ledarskapsverktyget styrdiagram med målet att ge chefer statistiskt säkerställda tidiga varningar rörande medarbetarnas hälsa. Teori X och Y är, tillsammans med den tredimensionella ledarskapsbeteendeteorin, teoribas för analys av värderingar och beteenden inom ledarskapet. Teorier rörande PDSA och styrdiagram är använda för att utveckla ledarskapsverktyg. Hälsa är definierad med ett salutogent humanistiskt perspektiv som betonar det individuella välbefinnandet.

Kvalitet som en produkts förmåga att tillfredsställa eller helst överträffa kundernas behov och förväntningar. Effektivitet som både intern och extern måluppfyllelse. Både kvalitativa och kvantitativa forskningsmetoder är använda i studierna. Intervjuer, gruppseminarier med medarbetare, insamling av personaladministrativa data och effektivitetsindikatorer samt frågeformulär till chefer och medarbetare är använda som datainsamlingsverktyg.

Chefer med mer Teori Y-orienterade värderingar bedöms av medarbetare ha höga värden rörande arbetssätt för kvalitet, ledarskapsbeteenden samt tendenser till bättre hälsa bland medarbetarna.

Gemensamma grupper av ledarskapsbeteenden från två studier hos framgångsrika organisationer är identifierade; Den strategiska och visionära ledarskapsrollen, Kommunikation och information, Ansvar och befogenheter, Lärande kultur, Medarbetardiskussioner, Enkelhet, Humanitet och förtroende, Vara synlig i organisationen och Personligt reflektivt ledarskap. Dessa beteenden motsvarar en ledarskapsprofil inkluderande de tre dimensionerna struktur, relation och förändring. Tydligast i resultaten är relationsdimensionen och slutsatsen är att den är universell.

Den utvecklade PDSA modellen verkar vara ett tillämpbart ledarskapsverktyg som influerar både ledarskapsvärderingar och ledarskapsbeteenden, framförallt ökad relationsorientering. Ett tidigt varningssystem innehållande hälsoindikatorerna självskattat allmänt hälsotillstånd och nya sjukfall per anställd med styrdiagrammen CUSUM och Shewhart är ett kraftfullt och användbart ledarskapsverktyg.

I fortsatt forskning kan de explorativa resultaten testas kvantitativt med representativa, helst internationella, data utifrån en longitudinell design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mittuniversitetet, 2010. 179 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 79
Keyword
Leadership, Values, Behaviours, Tools, Quality, Effectiveness, Health, Ledarskap, Värderingar, Beteenden, Verktyg, Kvalitet, Effektivitet, Hälsa, Kvalitetsteknik
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11218 (URN)978-91-86073-65-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-02-26, F234, Campus Östersund, Östersund, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-02-02 Created: 2010-02-01 Last updated: 2010-02-05Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
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  • de-DE
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  • en-US
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  • Other locale
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