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Monte Carlo Simulation of the Performance of a Fiber-Optic Position Sensor
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3790-0729
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (STC)
Responsible organisation
2006 (English)In: 18th International Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America , 2006, TuE48- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A numerical model for evaluation of a position sensor based on a single- to multicore fiber coupling and a real-time processing CMOS camera chip is presented, allowing design of sub-µm resolution, high dynamic range sensors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC: Optical Society of America , 2006. TuE48- p.
Keyword [en]
Fiber-optics, position, sensor, image analysis
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3882Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84899130780Local ID: 4204ISBN: 1-55752-817-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-3882DiVA: diva2:28914
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Theory and Applications of Coupling Based Intensity Modulated Fibre-Optic Sensors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theory and Applications of Coupling Based Intensity Modulated Fibre-Optic Sensors
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Optical fibre sensors can be used to measure a wide variety of properties. In some cases they have replaced conventional electronic sensors due to their possibility of performing measurements in environments suffering from electromagnetic disturbance, or in harsh environments where electronics cannot survive. In other cases they have had less success mainly due to the higher cost involved in fibre-optic sensor systems. Intensity modulated fibre-optic sensors normally require only low-cost monitoring systems principally based on light emitting diodes and photo diodes. The sensor principle itself is very simple when based on coupling between fibres, and coupling based intensity modulated sensors have found applications over a long time, mainly within position and vibration sensing. In this thesis new concepts and applications for intensity modulated fibre-optic sensors based on coupling between fibres are presented. From a low-cost and standard component perspective alternative designs are proposed and analyzed in order to find improved performance. The development of a sensor for an industrial temperature sensing application, involving aspects on multiplexing and fibre network installation, is presented. Optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) is suggested as an efficient technique for multiplexing several coupling based sensors, and sensor network installation with blown fibre in micro ducts is proposed as a flexible and cost-efficient alternative to traditional cabling. A new sensor configuration using a fibre to a multicore fibre coupling and an image sensor readout system is proposed. With this system a high-performance sensor setup with a large measurement range can be realised without the need for precise fibre alignment often needed in coupling based sensors involving fibres with small cores. The system performance is analyzed theoretically with complete system simulations on different setups. An experimental setup is made based on standard fibre and image acquisition components, and differences from the theoretical performance are analyzed. It is shown that sub-µm accuracy should be possible to obtain, being the theoretical limit, and it is further suggested that the experimental performance is mainly related to two error sources: core position instability and differences between the real and the expected optical power distribution. Methods to minimize the experimental error are proposed and evaluated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet, 2008. 99 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 35
Keyword
fibre-optics, sensor, intensity modulation, coupling
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-7057 (URN)978-91-86073-20-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
O111, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2011-02-06Bibliographically approved
2. Fibre-Optic Displacement and Temperature Sensing Using Coupling Based Intensity Modulation and Polarisation Modulation Techniques
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fibre-Optic Displacement and Temperature Sensing Using Coupling Based Intensity Modulation and Polarisation Modulation Techniques
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Optical fibre sensors are employed in the measurements of a number of different physical properties or for event detection in safety and security systems. In those environments which suffer from electromagnetic disturbance, in harsh environments where electronics cannot survive and in applications in favour of distributed detection, fibre-optic sensors have found natural areas of use. In some cases they have replaced conventional electronic sensors due to better performance and long-term reliability, but in others they have had less success mainly due to the higher costs which are often involved in fibre-optic sensor systems.

Intensity modulated fibre-optic sensors normally require only low-cost monitoring systems principally based on light emitting diodes and photodiodes. The sensor principle itself is very elemental when based on coupling between fibres, and coupling based intensity modulated sensors have been utilised over a long period of time, mainly within displacement and vibration sensing. For distributed sensing based on intensity modulation, optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) systems with customised sensor cables have been used in the detection of heat, water leakage and hydrocarbon fluid spills.

In this thesis, new concepts for intensity modulated fibre-optic sensors based on coupling between fibres are presented, analysed, simulated and experimentally verified. From a low-cost and standard component perspective, alternative designs are proposed and analysed using modulation function simulations and measurements, in order to find an improved performance. Further, the development and installation of a temperature sensor system for industrial process monitoring is presented, involving aspects with regards to design, calibration, multiplexing and fibre network installation. The OTDR is applied as an efficient technique for multiplexing several coupling based sensors, and sensor network installation with blown fibre in microducts is proposed as a flexible and cost-efficient alternative to traditional cabling.

As a solution to alignment issues in coupling based sensors, a new displacement sensor configuration based on a fibre to a multicore fibre coupling and an image sensor readout system is proposed. With this concept a high-performance sensor setup with relaxed alignment demands and a large measurement range is realised. The sensor system performance is analysed theoretically with complete system simulations, and an experimental setup is made based on standard fibre and image acquisition components. Simulations of possible error contributions show that the experimental performance limitation is mainly related to differences between the modelled and the real coupled power distribution. An improved power model is suggested and evaluated experimentally, showing that the experimental performance can be improved down towards the theoretical limit of 1 μm.

The potential of using filled side-hole fibres and polarisation analysis for point and distributed detection of temperature limits is investigated as a complement to existing fibre-optic heat detection systems. The behaviour and change in birefringence at the liquid/solid phase transition temperature for the filler substance is shown and experimentally determined for side-hole fibres filled with water solutions and a metal alloy, and the results are supported by simulations. A point sensor for on/off temperature detection based on this principle is suggested. Further the principles of distributed detection by measurements of the change in beat length are demonstrated using polarisation OTDR (POTDR) techniques. It is shown that high-resolution techniques are required for the fibres studied, and side-hole fibres designed with lower birefringence are suggested for future studies in relation to the distributed application.

Abstract [sv]

Fiberoptiska sensorer används för mätning av ett antal olika fysikaliska parametrar eller för händelsedetektering i larm- och säkerhetssystem. I miljöer med elektromagnetiska störningar, i andra besvärliga miljöer där elektronik inte fungerar samt i tillämpningar där distribuerade sensorer är att föredra, har fiberoptiska lösningar funnit naturliga applikationer. I vissa fall har de ersatt konventionella elektroniska sensorer på grund av bättre prestanda och tillförlitlighet, medan de i andra sammanhang har haft mindre framgång huvudsakligen på grund av den i många fall högre kostnaden för fiberoptiska sensorsystem.

Intensitetsmodulerade fiberoptiska sensorer kräver normalt endast billiga utläsningssystem huvudsakligen baserade på lysdioder och fotodioder. Principen för sådana sensorer baserade på koppling mellan fibrer är mycket enkel, och denna typ av sensorer har haft tillämpningar under en lång tid, främst inom mätning av positionsförändring och vibrationer. För distribuerade intensitetsmodulerade sensorer har system baserade på optisk tidsdomän-reflektometer (OTDR) och skräddarsydda sensorkablar funnit tillämpningar i detektion av värme/brand, vattenläckage och kolvätebaserade vätskor.

I denna avhandling presenteras, simuleras, testas och utvärderas praktiskt några nya koncept för kopplingsbaserade intensitetsmodulerade fiberoptiska sensorer. Från ett lågkostnads- och standardkomponentperspektiv föreslås och analyseras alternativa lösningar för förbättrad prestanda. Utveckling och installation av en temperatursensor för en industriell tillämpning, innehållande aspekter på sensormultiplexering och nätverksbyggande, behandlas. OTDR-teknik används som en effektiv metod för multiplexering av flera kopplingsbaserade sensorer, och installation av sensornätverk genom användning av blåsfiberteknik och mikrodukter föreslås som ett flexibelt och kostnadseffektivt alternativ till traditionell kabelinstallation.

Som en lösning på förekommande upplinjeringsproblem för kopplingsbaserade sensorer, föreslås en ny sensorkonfiguration baserad på koppling mellan en fiber och en multikärnefiber/fiberarray och med ett bildsensorsystem för detektering. Med detta koncept kan ett högpresterande, upplinjeringsfritt sensorsystem med ett stort mätområde åstadkommas. Sensorsystemets prestanda har analyserats teoretiskt med kompletta systemsimuleringar, och en experimentell uppställning baserad på standardfiber och en kamera av standardtyp har gjorts. Simuleringar av möjliga felbidrag visar att systemets experimentella prestanda främst begränsas av skillnader mellan den modellerade och den verkliga optiska effektfördelningen. En förbättrad modell för effektfördelningen föreslås och utvärderas experimentellt. Det visas att prestanda är möjlig att förbättra ner mot den teoretiska gräns på 1 μm som erhållits vid systemsimuleringar.

Möjligheterna att använda fyllda hålfibrer och polarisationskänslig mätning för detektering av temperaturgränser studeras i syfte att komplettera befintliga fiberoptiska värmedetektorsystem. Förändringen i fiberns dubbelbrytning vid övergångstemperaturen mellan vätske- och fast fas för ämnet i hålen visas och bestäms experimentellt för hålfibrer fyllda med vattenlösningar respektive en metallegering, och resultaten understöds också av simuleringar. En punktsensor för temperaturdetektering baserad på denna princip föreslås. Vidare visas principerna för distribuerad detektering genom registrering av förändringen i dubbelbrytning med polarisations-OTDR (POTDR). Det visas att OTDR-teknik med hög spatial upplösning behövs för övervakning av de studerade fibrerna, och hålfibrer utformade med lägre dubbelbrytning föreslås för framtida studier av tillämpningen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet, 2013. 183 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 156
Keyword
optical fibre sensor, displacement measurement, temperature measurement, fibre coupling, intensity modulation, birefringence, polarisation, OTDR, side-hole fibre
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18964 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-87103-95-7 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Public defence
2013-06-12, Mittuniversitetet, sal O111, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-22 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved

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