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Road status sensors: A comparison of active and passive sensors
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
2009 (English)In: TS116: Weather monitoring, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of the road status and specifically knowledge of the freezing point of the road surface fluid is crucial in order to perform effective and environmentally safe road maintenance. Road status sensors installed in the road can be passive conductivity sensors or active freezing point sensors. In this paper the output from a passive and an active sensor has been studied when the sensors has been contaminated with common chemicals that can be present on the road surface such as oil, alcohol and glycol. The results indicated that only intelligent active sensors reliably can detect freezing points on the road surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009.
Keyword [en]
Road status, road status sensors, freezing point
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-10379Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84954470884OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-10379DiVA: diva2:278005
Conference
ITS World Congress 2009
Available from: 2009-12-02 Created: 2009-11-23 Last updated: 2017-09-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Intelligent networked sensors for increased traffic safety
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intelligent networked sensors for increased traffic safety
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Our society needs to continuously perform transports of people and goods toensure that business is kept going. Every disturbance in the transportation ofpeople or goods affects the commerce and may result in economical losses forcompanies and society. Severe traffic accidents cause personal tragedies forpeople involved as well as huge costs for the society. Therefore the roadauthorities continuously try to improve the traffic safety. Traffic safety may beimproved by reduced speeds, crash safe cars, tires with better road grip andimproved road maintenance. The environmental effects from roadmaintenance when spreading de-icing chemicals need to be considered, i.e.how much chemicals should be used to maximize traffic safety and minimizethe environmental effects. Knowledge about the current and upcoming roadcondition can improve the road maintenance and hence improve traffic safety.This thesis deals with sensors and models that give information about the roadcondition.The performance and reliability of existing surface mounted sensors wereexamined by laboratory experiments. Further research involved field studies tocollect data used to develop surface status models based on road weather dataand camera images. Field studies have also been performed to find best usageof non intrusive IR technology.The research presented here showed that no single sensor give enoughinformation by itself to safely describe the road condition. However, the resultsindicated that among the traditional road surface mounted sensors only theactive freezing point sensor gave reliable freezing point results. Furtherresearch aimed to find a model that could classify the road condition indifferent road classes from existing road weather sensor data and road images.The result was a model that accurately could distinguish between the roadconditions dry, wet, snowy and icy. These road conditions are clearly dissimilarand are therefore used as the definition of the road classes used in this thesis.Finally, results from research regarding remote sensing IR technology showedthat it significantly improves knowledge of the road temperature and statuscompared to data from surface mounted sensors.

Abstract [sv]

Vårt samhälle bygger på att det finns effektiva transporter av människor ochvaror för att säkerställa att samhällets funktioner fungerar och att företagenkan genomföra sina affärer. Störningar i transporterna av människor och varorpåverkar handeln och kan leda till ekonomiska förluster för både företag ochvårt samhälle. Allvarliga trafikolyckor orsakar personliga tragedier för deinblandade samt stora kostnader för samhället. Det är med denna bakgrundsom vägmyndigheterna kontinuerligt arbetar med att förbättratrafiksäkerheten. Trafiksäkerheten kan förbättras genom att minskahastigheterna, se till att bilarna blir krocksäkra, krav på däck med bättreväggrepp och ett bättre vägunderhåll. Miljöeffekterna från vinterväghållningdär avisningsmedel sprids på vägarna måste beaktas, d.v.s. hur mycketkemikalier bör användas för att maximera trafiksäkerheten och minimeramiljöpåverkan. Denna avhandling handlar om sensorer och modeller som gerinformation om väglaget. En kunskap om aktuellt och kommande väglag kanförbättra väghållningen och därmed öka trafiksäkerheten.I avhandlingen har prestanda och tillförlitlighet hos befintliga vägmonteradesensorer granskats i laboratorieexperiment. Data från fältstudier har använtsför att utveckla modeller som kan ge information om vägytans status baseratpå meteorologiska mätdata och kamerabilder. Det har också genomförtsfältstudier för att utforska den fördelaktigaste användningen av beröringsfriinfraröd sensorteknik.Den forskning som presenteras här visar att ingen enskild givare ger tillräckliginformation för att säkert beskriva väglaget. Från de traditionella ytmonteradesensorerna drogs slutsatsen att den aktiva fryspunktsgivaren gav de mesttillförlitliga fryspunktsresultaten. Det vidare arbetet handlade om att hitta enmodell som skulle kunna klassificera vägförhållanden i olika vägklassergenom att utnyttja information från befintliga sensorer och kamerabilder.Detta arbete resulterade i en modell som tillförlitligt kan särskilja väglagentorr, våt, snöig och isig. Dessa väglag är väsentligt olika och har därför valtssom väglagsklasser i denna avhandling. Under en säsong genomfördes ävenfältförsök med beröringsfri infraröd mätteknik där det visade sig att denberöringsfria teknologin förbättrar kunskapen om vägbanans temperatur och vägbanans status.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2011. 41 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 68
Keyword
Road weather information systems (RWiS), Remote sensing, InfraRed, Computer models
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14982 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-86694-52-4 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-30 Created: 2011-11-30 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
2. Surface Status Classification, Utilizing Image Sensor Technology and Computer Models
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface Status Classification, Utilizing Image Sensor Technology and Computer Models
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is a great need to develop systems that can continuously provide correct information about road surface status depending on the prevailing weather conditions. This will minimize accidents and optimize transportation. In this thesis different methods for the determination of the road surface status have been studied and analyzed, and suggestions of new technology are proposed. Information about the road surface status is obtained traditionally from various sensors mounted directly in the road surface. This information must then be analyzed to create automated warning systems for road users and road maintenance personnel. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how existing technologies can be used to obtain a more accurate description of the current road conditions. Another purpose is also to investigate how existing technologies can be used to obtain a more accurate description of the current road conditions. Furthermore, the aim is to develop non-contact technologies able to determine and classify road conditions over a larger area, since there is no system available today that can identify differences in road surface status in the wheel tracks and between the wheel tracks.

Literature studies have been carried out to find the latest state of the art research and technology, and the research work is mainly based on empirical studies. A large part of the research has involved planning and setting up laboratory experiments to test and verify hypotheses that have emerged from the literature studies. Initially a few traditional road-mounted sensors were analyzed regarding their ability to determine the road conditions and the impact on their measured values when the sensors were exposed to contamination agents such as glycol and oil. Furthermore, non-contact methods for determining the status of the road surface have been studied. Images from cameras working in the visible range, together data from the Swedish Transportation Administration road weather stations, have been used to develop computerized road status classification models that can distinguish between a dry, wet, icy and snowy surface. Field observations have also been performed to get the ground truth for developing these models. In order to improve the ability to accurately distinguish between different surface statuses, measurement systems involving sensors working in the Near-Infrared (NIR) range have been utilized. In this thesis a new imaging method for determining road conditions with NIR camera technology is developed and described. This method was tested in a field study performed during the winter 2013-2014 with successful results.

The results show that some traditional sensors could be used even with future user-friendly de-icing chemicals. The findings from using visual camera systems and meteorological parameters to determine the road status showed that they provide previously unknown information about road conditions. It was discovered that certain road conditions such as black ice is not always detectable using this technology. Therefore, research was performed that utilized the NIR region where it proved to be possible to detect and distinguish different road conditions, such as black ice. NIR camera technology was introduced in the research since the aim of the thesis was to find a method that provides information on the status of the road over a larger area. The results show that if several images taken in different spectral bands are analyzed with the support of advanced computer models, it is possible to distinguish between a dry, wet, icy and snowy surface. This resulted in the development of a NIR camera system that can distinguish between different surface statuses. Finally, two of these prototype systems for road condition classification were evaluated. These systems were installed at E14 on both sides of the border between Sweden and Norway. The results of these field tests show that this new road status classification, based on NIR imaging spectral analysis, provides new information about the status of the road surface, compared to what can be obtained from existing measurement systems, particularly for detecting differences in and between the wheel tracks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2015. 104 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 219
Keyword
road condition, NIR, infrared, remote sensing, signal processing, classifiers
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24828 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-88025-13-5 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Public defence
2015-05-05, Q221, Akademigatan 1, Östersund, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-14 Last updated: 2016-12-23Bibliographically approved

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