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Is there a ‘‘school effect’’ on pupil outcomes?: A review of multilevel studies
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
Responsible organisation
2006 (English)In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 60, no 2, 149-155 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Study objective: The school environment is of importance for child outcomes. Multilevel analyses can separate determinants operating at an individual level from those operating at a contextual level. This paper aims to systematically review multilevel studies of school contextual effects on pupil outcomes. Design: Key word searching of five databases yielded 17 cross-sectional or longitudinal studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Results are summarized with reference to type of school contextual determinant. Main results: Four main school effects on pupil outcomes were identified. Having a health or anti-smoking policy, a good school climate, high average socio-economic status [SES], and urban localization had a positive effect on pupil outcomes. Outcomes under study were smoking habits, well-being, problem behaviour and school achievement. Conclusions: Despite the different pupil outcomes and the variety of determinants used in the included papers, a school effect was evident. However, in order to improve our understanding of school effects, presentations of results from multilevel studies need to be standardized. Intra-class correlation (ICC) and explained between-school variance give relevant information on factors in the school environment influencing pupil outcomes, and should be included in all multilevel studies. Inclusion of pupil-level predictors in the multilevel models should be based on theoretical considerations on how schools and communities are interconnected and through which paths pupils and their families are influenced by school contextual factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 60, no 2, 149-155 p.
Keyword [en]
school effect, child, pupil, outcome studies, multilevel studies
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1176DOI: 10.1136/jech.2005.036707ISI: 000234651900014Local ID: 3987OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-1176DiVA: diva2:26208
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2013-02-05Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

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Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf