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Organic acids and siderophores in forest soil solution
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2003.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 0
Keywords [en]
acidification, aluminium, ash treatment, canopy tree, column switching, coniferous, DOC, HPLC-MC, hydroxamate, liming, low molecular weight, organic acids, podzol, porous graphitic carbon, siderophore, soil solution
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8904ISBN: 91-87908-76-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-8904DiVA, id: diva2:216187
Public defence
2003-12-05, Sundsvall, 13:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-05-07 Created: 2009-05-07 Last updated: 2017-03-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from forest floor under six north American tree species
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from forest floor under six north American tree species
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2001 (English)In: European Journal of Soil Science, ISSN 1351-0754, E-ISSN 1365-2389, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 205-214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organic acidity and its degree of neutralization in the forest floor can have large consequences for base cation leaching under different tree species. We investigated the effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six common North American tree species. Forest floor samples were analysed for exchangeable cations and forest floor solutions for cations, anions, simple organic acids and acidic properties. Citric and lactic acid were the most common of the acids under all species. Malonic acid was found mainly under Tsuga canadensis (hemlock) and Fagus grandifolia (beech). The organic acids were positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon and contributed significantly to the organic acidity of the solution (up to 26%). Forest floor solutions under Tsuga canadensis contained the most dissolved C and the most weak acidity among the six tree species. Under Tsuga canadensis we also found significant amounts of strong acidity caused by deposition of sulphuric acid from the atmosphere and by strong organic acids. Base cation exchange was the most important mechanism by which acidity was neutralized. Organic acids in solution from Tsuga canadensis, Fagus grandifolia, Acer rubrum (red maple) and Quercus rubra (red oak) were hardly neutralized while much more organic acidity was neutralized for Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Fraxinus americana (white ash). We conclude that quantity, nature and degree of neutralization of organic acids differ among the different tree species. While the potential for base cation leaching with organic acids from the forest floor is greatest under Tsuga canadensis, actual leaching with organic anions is greatest under Acer saccharum and Fraxinus americana under which the forest floor contains more exchangeable cations than does the strongly acidified forest floor under Tsuga canadensis.

Keywords
organic acids
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-2430 (URN)10.1046/j.1365-2389.2001.00369.x (DOI)000169353400003 ()2-s2.0-0012059665 (Scopus ID)1620 (Local ID)1620 (Archive number)1620 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Effects of lime and ash treatments on DOC fractions and low molecular weight organic acids in soil solutions of acidified podzolic soils
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of lime and ash treatments on DOC fractions and low molecular weight organic acids in soil solutions of acidified podzolic soils
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2003 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 97-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions and different low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) were determined in soil solutions from two lime or ash treated Norway spruce sites in the south of Sweden. At Hasslöv, 3.45 t ha-1 or 8.75 t ha-1 dolomite were applied 15 years before sampling. Horröd was treated with 4.28 t ha-1 ash and 3.25 t ha-1 dolomite and sampled four years later. Propionate (7–268 M) and malonate (2–34 M) were the LMWOAsfound in the highest concentrations at Hasslöv. Two other LMWOAs dominated at Horröd, namely citrate (18–64 M)and fumarate (5–31 M). The differences in concentration of most of the determined LMWOAs at Hasslöv were significantly increased due to treatment. The LMWOAs comprised between 1.1–6.3% of the DOC at Hasslöv and 4.5–17.6% at Horröd. At Hasslöv normally 3–10% of the total acidity (TA) was due to LMWOAs and the average specific buffer capacity was 74 ± 22 mmol mol-1C.The total DOC concentration in the mor layer solution was 16 mM for the dolomite treated plots compared to 10 mM at the untreated plot. A major part of the increase in DOC at the treated plots apparently had a hydrophobic character and was of high molecular weight corresponding to 3–10 kDa. The concentration of DOC < 1 kDa in the control and treated plots was similar.

Keywords
acidification - hydrophobicity - lime - low molecular weight - organic acids - organic matter - size distribution - soil solution - wood ash
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-2427 (URN)10.1023/A:1024175430032 (DOI)1617 (Local ID)1617 (Archive number)1617 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-12-16 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Siderophores in forest soil solution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Siderophores in forest soil solution
2004 (English)In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 247-258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Siderophores in soil solution of coniferous forest soils have been chemically identified for the first time. We have identified the siderophores ferrichrome and ferricrocin in soil solution of the upper organic layer by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The soil solutions were sampled from mor layers of podzolic soils from the south and the north of Sweden and from a mor layer overlying granitic rock and intensively colonised by ectomycorrhizal hyphae. Ferrichrome was found in nanomolar concentrations in all soil solutions investigated and ferricrocin only in the soil solution from the mor layer covering a rock and in the soil solution from the north of Sweden. The findings are discussed in relation to the possible role of fungal hyphae and siderophores in weathering minerals in podzolic soils under coniferous forests. Citric and oxalic acid are able to dissolve minerals via complexation of cations from the mineral. Siderophores should be, kinetically and thermodynamically even more efficient complexing agents for trivalent cations than oxalic and citric acid. The present study provides direct for presence of siderophores in soil solution.

Keywords
siderophores, LC-MS, forest soil solution, ferrichrome
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-2546 (URN)10.1007/s10533-004-9915-5 (DOI)000226519400006 ()2-s2.0-10344258649 (Scopus ID)1795 (Local ID)1795 (Archive number)1795 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-05-07 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Novel approach to the determination of structurally similar hydroxamate siderophores by column-switching capillary liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel approach to the determination of structurally similar hydroxamate siderophores by column-switching capillary liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry
2003 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1020, no 1, p. 91-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study a new approach to determine three different siderophores (ferrichrome, ferrichrysin, ferricrocin) in natural soil solutions as well as in cultures of fungi is presented. The method includes enrichment of the analytes on a short pre-column, packed with C18 material, and subsequent highly selective separation of the analytes on a capillary porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. In contrast to normal C18 packing materials, porous graphitic carbon offers chromatographic resolution between the three very similar analytes. The selectivity of the method is enhanced even further by the electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometric detection. The combination of a short pre-column and a packed capillary separation column results in a method with high sensitivity. Reported detection limits, defined as the concentration giving the signal-to-noise ratio 3:1, is 27.7 pM for ferrichrome, 46.1 pM for ferricrocin and 37.4 pM for ferrichrysin.

Keywords
Porous graphitic carbon, Column-switching, Soil, Siderophores, Ferrichrome, Ferricrocin, Ferrichrysin, Hydroxamates
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-572 (URN)10.1016/S0021-9673(03)01236-6 (DOI)000186503900010 ()1642350898 (Scopus ID)1802 1106 (Local ID)1802 1106 (Archive number)1802 1106 (OAI)
Note
19th Montreux Symposium on Liquid Chromatograph, Nov 06-08-08, 2002, Montreux, SwitzerlandAvailable from: 2008-09-23 Created: 2008-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
5. Impact of lime and ash applications on soil solution chemistry of acidified podzolic soils.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of lime and ash applications on soil solution chemistry of acidified podzolic soils.
2003 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 77-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Soil solution samples were taken from two sites (Horröd and Hasslöv) in the south part of Sweden to evaluate how soil solution chemistry responded to different treatmentswith dolomite and wood ash. At Horröd, samples were taken four years after application of wood ash, 4.28 ton ha-1 and dolomite, 3.25 ton ha-1. At Hasslöv dolomite, 3.45 ton ha-1 and 8.75 ton ha-1 was applied and samples were taken 15 yr later. It was found that treatment with dolomite at one site (Hasslöv) resulted in higher pH values (<2 pH units) and higher nitrification. It was also found at this site that the total Al and the inorganic Al concentrations decreased with dolomite treatment. The Ca, Mg, DOC, Fe, SO4 2- and Cl- concentrations, mainly in the topsoil, were found to be higher at both sites, following dolomite treatment; Ca and Mg concentrations were 2–8 times higher (<820 mgrM) than in controls (<70 mgrM). Wood ash was found to have less impact. The PO4 concentration in the O2 horizon at Hasslöv decreased due to dolomite-treatment. ANOVA (Analyse of Variance) and PLS (Partial Least Square) were used to evaluate the data from the two sites.

Keywords
ash treatment, DOC, liming, nitrification, podzol, soil solution
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-2429 (URN)10.1023/A:1024123413194 (DOI)1618 (Local ID)1618 (Archive number)1618 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
6. Modelling of aluminium chemistry in soil solution of acidified and lime treated podzolic soil
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of aluminium chemistry in soil solution of acidified and lime treated podzolic soil
2004 (English)In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 127, no 3-4, p. 280-292Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Soil solutions were taken from untreated and lime treated Norway spruce sites in the south of Sweden. At the limed sites 3.45 t ha−1 (L) or 8.75 t ha−1 (H) dolomite were applied 15 years before sampling. The mean concentration of inorganic Al (AlQR) in the untreated control plots (C) was 37 μM and the concentration of AlQR decreased when the dosages of dolomite treatments increased. For the H plots, with high doses of dolomite treatment the mean concentration of AlQR was 17 μM. The total Al (Altot) also decreased by dolomite treatment, from 72 μM to 56 μM. Propionate (7–268 μM) and malonate (2–34 μM) were the low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) found in the highest concentrations at Hasslöv. The differences in concentration of most of the determined LMWOAs were significantly increased due to treatment. The citrate average concentration for the different plots varied between 2.8 μM and 5.1 μM and the concentration of oxalate had concentrations between 1.7 μM and 2.6 μM. The experimental concentration of Al bound to LMWOAs obtained by ultrafiltration (<1000 Da) of the soil solution was in the mor layer on average 12% for the C plot and the L plots and 4% in the H plots. In the AE horizon the figures were 15% for the C plot and about 7% for the treated L and H plots, and in the Bhs horizon 9% for both the C, L and H plots. Two chemical equilibrium models were evaluated: Winderemere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) and a model treating the high molecular weight organic acids as monoprotic. The concentrations of inorganic Al, Al bound to identified LMWOAs and high molecular weights acids in soil solution (mor, AE and Bhs) from untreated and lime treated soil were calculated. The modelled inorganic Al values of the control plot were similar to the concentrations found in the soil solution (AlQR). For the dolomite treated plots the concentration of AlQR (0–40 μM) was higher in soil solution than that modelled by WHAM and the monoprotic model. The experimental concentration of Al bound to LMWOAs obtained by ultrafiltration (<1000 Da) of the soil solution was comparable but always higher than the modelled values. The modelling confirms that an appreciable part of the Al is strongly complexed with LMWOAs in the organic and eluvial horizons of the podzolized soil, suggesting that LMWOAs are efficient weathering agents and important for the formation of the eluvial horizon in podzols. Saturation indices (SI) for two solid Al phases were also calculated, including crystalline gibbsite and proto-imogolite (PI). The SIs for both the C and the treated plots (L and H) showed very broad ranges for the different horizons investigated, indicating undersaturation as well as oversaturation with respect to gibbsite and proto-imogolite.

Keywords
acidification, aluminium, DOC, lime, low molecular weight, organic acids, soil solution
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-2534 (URN)10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.12.012 (DOI)000230546600012 ()1796 (Local ID)1796 (Archive number)1796 (OAI)
Note
9th Meeting of the Nordic-Chapter-of-the-International-Humic-Substances-Society, May 19-21, 2003, Sundsvall, SwedenAvailable from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-05-07 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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Holmström, Sara J M

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