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Alternating Coding and its Decoder Architectures for Unary-Prefixed Codes
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Electrics Design Division, STC)
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The entropy coding of high peak, heavy-tailed probability distributions such as the Laplacian, Cauchy, and generalized Gaussian have been a topic of interest because they are able to provide good models for data in many coding systems, especially in image and video coding systems. This thesis studies the entropy coding of such high peak, heavy-tailed probability distributions. By summarizing the encoding of such distributions under the concept “Unary Prefixed Codes” (UPC), the thesis depicts the encoding via a different approach. By extending the concept of UPC, the thesis proposes a universally applicable coding algorithm “Unary Prefixed Huffman” (UPH) that could be applied to both finite and infinite sources. The code set resulting from the UPH algorithm has a coding efficiency which is upper-bounded by entropy + 2 given that the entropy is finite, and is able to provide sub-optimal encoding of the sources studied in the thesis. The thesis also proposes several different variations of UPCs that are simple in structure yet efficient for use for several variations of the high peak, heavy-tailed distributions that are commonly found in image and video coding systems. By applying the concept of the UPC, the thesis further proposes a coding method named the “Alternating Coding” (ALT) method. The ALT coding provides a coding pattern that is different from the conventional method which enables the extraction of special properties of the UPCs. Using the extraction of the special property of the UPCs, decoding could be greatly simplified and parallel decoding could be a possibility. Moreover, for the highly structured UPCs that are widely used in image and video coding systems, the ALT coding enables an error resiliency mechanism to be applied, which helps to improve the error tolerance of these UPC packets to a significant extent. Simulations and actual application results of the ALT coding are discussed in the thesis. By applying the ALT coding, the hardware architecture of the decoder changes accordingly. The ALT decoder is different to the conventional variable length decoders that have been applied in the decoding of UPCs, as it is able to utilize the special properties of the UPCs and thus simplify the decoder architecture. As shown in the thesis, the ALT decoders are smaller in size, faster in speed and consume much less power compared to the conventional decoders. This is particularly true for those highly structured UPCs that are commonly used in image and video coding systems. Actual realizations of several ALT decoders are discussed in the thesis, and comparisons are made to the conventional decoders. The improvements are shown to be very evident.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2005. , p. 132
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 1
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8854ISBN: 91-85317-08-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-8854DiVA, id: diva2:214773
Public defence
2005-06-08, O111, Åkroken, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-06 Created: 2009-05-06 Last updated: 2011-04-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Efficient Decoding of Variable Length Endoded Image Data on the Nios II Soft-Core Processor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient Decoding of Variable Length Endoded Image Data on the Nios II Soft-Core Processor
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Applied Reconfigurable Computing, Algarve, Portugal, February 2005, 2005, p. 119-122Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9361 (URN)2-s2.0-84893165277 (Scopus ID)978-972993538-1 (ISBN)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2009-07-13 Created: 2009-07-13 Last updated: 2015-03-11Bibliographically approved
2. Unary Prefixed Huffman Coding for a Group of Quantized Generalized Gaussian Sources
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unary Prefixed Huffman Coding for a Group of Quantized Generalized Gaussian Sources
2006 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 1164-1169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose a coding algorithm called unary prefixed Huffman (UPH) coding for a family of infinite sources called quantized generalized Gaussian (GG) sources. Compared with the existing codes for these GG sources, the UPH algorithm provides a more adaptive approach, and its coding efficiency is upper bounded by entropy +2.

Keywords
VLC coding, Entropy coding, Generalized Gaussian (GG) sources, Huffman code, Prefix codes
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-2865 (URN)10.1109/TCOMM.2006.876825 (DOI)000239406200004 ()2-s2.0-33746352065 (Scopus ID)2469 (Local ID)2469 (Archive number)2469 (OAI)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Note

VR-Computer Science

Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Unary-Prefixed Encoding of the Lengths of Consecutive Zeros in a Bit Vector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unary-Prefixed Encoding of the Lengths of Consecutive Zeros in a Bit Vector
2005 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 346-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A unary-prefixed encoding (UPE) algorithm for coding the lengths of zeros in a bit vector is proposed. While the lengths of consecutive zeros in a bit vector can be mapped to integer sources with a geometrical distribution (when the bits in the bit vector are independent of each other), the actual case, in a real-world situation, is more often that the distributions are exponential, with high peaks and heavier tails (when the bits in a bit vector are correlated). For the geometric distribution, the UPE code set can be proven to be optimal. For integer sources with high peaks and heavier tails, the UPE almost always provides better compression compared to existing suboptimal codes.

Keywords
VLC coding
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-2867 (URN)10.1049/el:20057325 (DOI)000227906000039 ()2472 (Local ID)2472 (Archive number)2472 (OAI)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Note
VR-Materials ScienceAvailable from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Efficient VLSI Implementation of a VLC Decoder for Golomb-Rice Code using Alternating Coding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient VLSI Implementation of a VLC Decoder for Golomb-Rice Code using Alternating Coding
2003 (English)In: IEEE Norchip´03, Riga, Latvia, November 2003, 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9362 (URN)
Available from: 2009-07-13 Created: 2009-07-13 Last updated: 2011-04-19Bibliographically approved
5. Parallel Variable-length Decoder Architecture for Alternated Coded GR-Codes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parallel Variable-length Decoder Architecture for Alternated Coded GR-Codes
2003 (English)In: IEEE Norchip´03, Riga, latvia, november, 2003, 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9363 (URN)
Available from: 2009-07-13 Created: 2009-07-13 Last updated: 2011-04-19Bibliographically approved
6. Error Resilient coding of DCT coefficients using alternating coding of UVLC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Error Resilient coding of DCT coefficients using alternating coding of UVLC
2003 (English)In: Norsig, Bergen, Norway,  October 2003, 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9364 (URN)
Available from: 2009-07-13 Created: 2009-07-13 Last updated: 2011-04-19Bibliographically approved
7. A Coding Method for UVLC Targeting Efficient Decoder Architecture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Coding Method for UVLC Targeting Efficient Decoder Architecture
2003 (English)In: Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Internatioal Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, Rome, Italy, September, 2003, 2003, p. 428-433Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Variable length code (VLC) is used in a large variety of lossless compression applications. A specially designed VLC, called "Universal Variable Length Code" (UVLC), is utilized in the latest video coding standard H.26L under development. In this work we propose a coding method that we call "Alternating Coding" (ALT coding) for UVLC. An efficient UVLC decoder is designed (ALT decoder) on the basis of it. ALT coding facilitates a much easier decoding scheme for UVLC. It frees the decoder from codeword tables and the sizes of the barrel shifters are reduced. The codeword tables and barrel shifters usually occupy the largest portion of the area in the traditional VLC decoders and they are also performance limiting in terms of speed and power consumption. We compare the ALT decoder with one of the most efficient VLC decoders called "VLC decoder using plane separation" (PLS). Our results show that the ALT decoder increases 25% in speed, decreases 41% in size, and consumes 45% power of the PLS decoder.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9365 (URN)10.1109/ISPA.2003.1296935 (DOI)000227381500078 ()2-s2.0-84946094680 (Scopus ID)953-184-061-X (ISBN)
Conference
3rd International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis (ISPA), SEP 18-20, 2003, Rome, ITALY
Available from: 2009-07-13 Created: 2009-07-13 Last updated: 2016-09-22Bibliographically approved
8. Alternating Coding for Universal Variable Length Code
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternating Coding for Universal Variable Length Code
2003 (English)In: Procceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Barcelona, Spain, September, 2003, IEEE , 2003, p. 477-480Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Variable length code (VLC) is used in a large variety of lossless compression applications. A specially designed VLC, called "Universal Variable Length Code" (UVLC), is utilized in the latest video coding standard H.26L under development. In this work we propose a new coding method under the name "Alternating Coding" (ALT coding) and apply it to the UVLC The ALT coded UVLC yields the same high coding efficiency as the original UVLC, but ALT coding also enables immediate decoding, immediate error detection and location in a UVLC packet. It improves the error resiliency and error robustness of the UVLC packet by applying an "error speculation". Results show that the ALT coded UVLC packet always outperforms the original UVLC packet in terms of error resiliency and robustness. Moreover the simple pattern of ALT coded UVLC can greatly simplify the UVLC decoder architecture and therefore enables small, fast, and low-power decoder design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2003
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9366 (URN)000187010500120 ()2-s2.0-0345134165 (Scopus ID)0-7803-7750-8 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Sep 14-17, 2003, Barcelona, Spain
Available from: 2009-07-13 Created: 2009-07-13 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
9. Efficient VLSI Implementation of a VLC Decoder for Universal Variable Length Code using Alternating Coding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient VLSI Implementation of a VLC Decoder for Universal Variable Length Code using Alternating Coding
2003 (English)In: ISVLSI 2003: IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI, PROCEEDINGS - NEW TRENDS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR VLSI SYSTEMS DESIGN, IEEE Computer Society, 2003, p. 207-208, article id 1183467Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Variable length code (VLC) is used in a large variety of lossless compression applications. A specially designed VLC, called "Universal Variable Length Code" (UVLC), is utilized in the latest video coding standard H.26L under development. In this work we develop an efficient decoder for UVLC by utilizing the special properties of UVLC which perform coding in an alternating way (ALT). We compare the ALT decoder with the decoder called "VLC decoder using plane separation" (PLS) which is claimed to be one of the most effective VLC decoders. Our results show that the ALT decoder is 1.34 times faster, 1.7 times smaller, and consumes 45% power in comparison to the PLS decoder

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2003
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9367 (URN)000181626500031 ()2-s2.0-84942035878 (Scopus ID)0-7695-1904-0 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE-Computer-Society Annual Symposium on VLSI, Feb 20-21, 2003, Tampa, FL
Available from: 2009-07-13 Created: 2009-07-13 Last updated: 2016-09-21Bibliographically approved
10. Hybrid Golomb codes for a group of quantised GG sources
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid Golomb codes for a group of quantised GG sources
2003 (English)In: IEE Proceedings - Vision Image and Signal Processing, ISSN 1350-245X, E-ISSN 1359-7108, Vol. 150, no 4, p. 256-260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The authors develop a class of codes for quantised generalised Gaussian (GG) sources. This new class of codes, that are called hybrid Golomb (HG) codes, are hybrids of Golomb-Rice (GR) codes and exp-Golomb (EG) codes. They integrate the properties of both GR and EG codes, which makes their performance more robust under variable source parameters. The efficiencies of the three classes of codes are compared and it is shown that the set of HG codes have efficiencies of approximately 70% or greater for a wide range of parameter values, whereas GR and EG codes can have efficiencies lower than 20%. The efficiencies of the set of HG codes are also compared with the set of EG codes that have the best performance under parameter scaling. It is shown that. this set of HG codes still achieve a higher efficiency.

National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1854 (URN)10.1049/ip-vis:20030510 (DOI)000185891300007 ()2-s2.0-0141954067 (Scopus ID)632 (Local ID)632 (Archive number)632 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • de-DE
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  • en-US
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  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf