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A Bandwidth-Allocation Policy Taking Layered Video Multicast into Consideration
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (SensibleReality, MUCOM)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (SensibleReality, MUCOM)
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the Eighth IASTED International Conference on Internet and Multimedia Systems and Applications, Acta Press , 2004, 347-352 p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As multicast is slowly gaining in support, the concept of multicast fairness is starting to attract some attention. Should multicast flows be favored at the expense of unicast flows, and if so to what extent? Allocating link bandwidth in proportion to the logarithm of the number of receivers of a flow has been proposed. That kind of policies favors multicast flows, without totally starving unicast flows. A problem of maintaining such policies emerges if layered multicast flows are introduced, since each layer is transmitted to a separate multicast IP address and will therefore be treated as an individual flow. Layered multicast flows will consequently be allocated too much bandwidth. In this paper, a logarithmic bandwidth-allocation policy that copes with layered multicast is proposed and evaluated through simulations. The results confirm that the proposal meets the expectations by preserving the intended fairness properties in scenarios with layered multicast traffic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Acta Press , 2004. 347-352 p.
Keyword [en]
Multicast, Fairness, Bandwidth Allocation, Layered Video
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-385ISI: 000228483400062ISBN: 0-88986-420-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-385DiVA: diva2:2006
Conference
8th IASTED International Conference on Internet and Multimedia Systems and Applications, Kauai, HI, Aug 16-18, 2004
Available from: 2007-12-05 Created: 2007-12-05 Last updated: 2011-04-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fair Treatment of Multicast Sessions and Their Receivers: Incentives for more efficient bandwidth utilization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fair Treatment of Multicast Sessions and Their Receivers: Incentives for more efficient bandwidth utilization
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Tjänster för strömmad media stiger kraftigt i popularitet, samtidigt som utbudet av denna typ av tjänster ökar. Internet protocol television (IPTV) med standardupplösning levereras redan till många hem, och högupplöst IPTV kommer att bli vanligt inom en relativt snar framtid. Mer avancerade tjänster, som tredimensionell TV och TV med fritt valbara vyer, står sedan på tur. Strömmad video är av naturen väldigt bandbreddskrävande, och denna utveckling kommer därför att sätta den befintliga nätverksinfrastrukturen på prov.

Multicast är mer bandbreddseffektivt än unicast för scenarion där många mottagare samtidigt är intresserade av samma data, vilket är fallet med populärt direktsänt material. Anledningen är att mottagarna av multicast-sessioner delar på resurserna via ett gemensamt transmissionsträd, där ingen data sänds mer än en gång över någon gren. Användningen av multicast kan därför generera stora besparingar av bandbredd. Internetleverantörerna har dock inga riktigt starka skäl för att stödja multicast, vilket medfört att spridningen varit långsam.

Vi föreslår att multicast-sessioner tilldelas mer bandbredd när det uppstår trafikstockningar i näten. Fördelningen baseras på antalet mottagare och datatakten som de erhåller, eftersom det är det som avgör graden av resursdelning. Vi anser att det är rättvist att ta hänsyn till detta, och kallar därför den föreslagna bandbreddsfördelningen multicast-favorable max-min fair. Vidare så presenteras två bandbreddstilldelningspolicyer som använder sig av olika mängd återkoppling för att uppnå fördelningar som ligger förhållandevis nära den föreslagna.

Vi föreslår även två mekanismer för kostnadsallokering, vilka bygger på antagandet att kostnaden för dataöverföring ska täckas av mottagarna. De föreslagna mekanismerna fördelar kostnaderna mellan mottagarna baserat på deras andel av resursutnyttjandet, vilket generellt är fördelaktigt för multicast-mottagare. De två mekanismerna för kostnadsallokering skiljer sig åt genom att den ena eftersträvar optimalt rättvis fördelning av kostnaderna, medan den andra kan ge rabatt till vissa mottagare. Rabatten möjliggör större grupper med mottagare, vilket även kan reducera kostnaderna för icke rabatterade mottagare.

Förslagen gör multicast mer attraktivt för användarna av strömmad media. Om förslagen implementerades i nätverk med multicast-stöd så skulle övriga Internetleverantörer bli tvungna att stödja multicast för att vara konkurrenskraftiga.

Abstract [en]

Media-streaming services are rapidly gaining in popularity, and new ones are knocking on the door. Standard-definition Internet protocol television (IPTV) has already entered many living rooms, and high-definition IPTV will become common property in the not too distant future. Then even more advanced and resource-demanding services, such as three-dimensional and free-view TV, are next in line. Video streaming is by nature extremely bandwidth intensive, and this development will put the existing network infrastructure to the test.

In scenarios where many receivers are simultaneously interested in the same data, which is the case with popular live content, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. The reason is that the receivers of a multicast session share the resources through a common transmission tree where data are only transmitted once along any branch. The use of multicast transmission can therefore yield huge bandwidth savings. There are however no really strong incentives for the Internet service providers (ISPs) to support multicast transmission, and the deployment has consequently been slow.

We propose that more bandwidth is allocated to multicast flows in the case of network congestion. The ratio is based upon the number of receivers and the bitrate that they are able to obtain, since this is what determines the degree of resource sharing. We believe that it is fair to take this into account, and accordingly call the proposed allocation multicast-favorable max-min fair. Further, we present two bandwidth-allocation policies that utilize different amount of feedback to perform allocations that are reasonable close to be multicast-favorable max-min fair.

We also propose two cost-allocation mechanisms that build upon the assumption that the cost for data transmission should be covered by the receivers. The mechanisms charge the receivers based on their share of the resources usage, which in general is favorable to multicast receivers. The two cost-allocation mechanisms differ in that one strives for optimum fair cost allocations, whereas the other might give discounts to some receivers. The discounts facilitate larger groups of receivers, which can provide cheaper services for the non-discounted receivers as well.

The proposals make multicast transmission more attractive to the users of media-streaming services. If the proposals were implemented in multicast-enabled networks, the rest of the ISPs would be forced to support multicast, to stay competitive.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden Univ, 2007
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 38
Keyword
bandwidth allocation, cost allocation, fairness, multicast
National Category
Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-43 (URN)978-91-85317-74-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-12-05, L111, L-huset, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-12-05 Created: 2007-12-05 Last updated: 2010-06-08Bibliographically approved

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