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Fabrication and Characterization of Photon Radiation Detectors
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (STC)
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis involves a study the fabrication and characterization of photon radiation detectors. The focus has been to develop and improve the performance of optical measurement systems, but also to reduce their cost. The work is based on the study of two types of detectors, the position sensitive detector and the thermal detector.

Infrared detectors are usually subcategorized into photonic detectors and thermal detectors. In the thermal detectors, heat generated from the incident infrared radiation is converted into an electrical output by some sensitive element. The basic structure of these detectors consists of a temperature sensitive element connected to a heat sink through a thermally isolating structure. Thin membranes of Silicon and Silicon nitride have been commonly used as thermally insulation between the heat sink and the sensitive elements. However, these materials suffer from relatively high thermal conductivity, which lowers the response of the detector. The fabrication of these membranes also requires rather advanced processing techniques and equipment. SU-8 is an epoxy based photoresist, which has low thermal conductivity and requires only standard photolithography. A new application of SU-8 as a self-supported membrane in a thermal detector is presented. This application is demonstrated by the fabrication and characterization of both an infrared sensitive thermopile and a bolometer detector. The bolometer consists of nickel resistances connected in a Wheatstone bridge configuration, whereas the thermopile uses serially interconnected Ti/Ni thermocouple junctions.

The position sensitive detectors include the lateral effect photodiodes and the quadrant detectors. Typical applications for these detectors are distance measurements and as centering devices. In the quadrant detectors, the active region consists of four pn-junctions separated by a narrow gap. The size of the active region in these detectors depends on the size of the light spot. In outdoor application, this spot size dependence degrades the performance of the four-quadrant detectors. In this thesis, a modified four-quadrant detector having the pn-junctions separated by a larger distance has been fabricated and characterized. By separating the pn-junctions the horizontal electric filed in the active region is removed, making the detector spot size insensitive.

Linearity of the lateral effect photodiodes depends on the uniformity of the resistive layer in the active region. The introduction of mechanical stress in an LPSD results in a resistance change mainly due to resistivity changes, and this affects the linearity of the detector. Measurements and simulations, where mechanical stress is applied to LPSDs are presented, and support this conclusion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier , 2007.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 29
Keyword [en]
Thermal Detectors, Posistion Sensitive Detectors
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37ISBN: 978-91-85317-72-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-37DiVA, id: diva2:1978
Presentation
2007-12-17, O102, O-Huset, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23 Last updated: 2011-04-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Development of an infrared thermopile detector with a thin self-supporting SU-8 membrane
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of an infrared thermopile detector with a thin self-supporting SU-8 membrane
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2007 (English)In: Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 836-839Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present the development and characterization of thermopile detector on a 4 mum thin self-supporting membrane made of the epoxy based photoresist SU-8. The membrane is realized using silicon bulk micromachining techniques. In many existing thermopile detectors, a temperature difference over the thermocouple junctions is achieved by connecting a thin membrane of either Si or Si3N4 to a silicon bulk. These materials suffer from relatively high thermal conductivity, which lowers the sensitivity of the detector. A material such as SU-8 has much lower thermal conductivity and is applied using standard photolithographic processing steps. Simulation results are presented which verifies SU-8 as a better choice than Si and Si3N4 when used as thermal insulating membrane in a thermopile detector. A thermopile consisting of 196 series coupled Ti/Ni thermocouples has been fabricated. Results from measurements are presented, showing a sensitivity of 5.6 V/W and a noise equivalent power (NEP) of 9.9 nW/radicHz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007
Series
IEEE Sensors, ISSN 1930-0395 ; 9
Keyword
Thermopile, SU-8, IR
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-358 (URN)10.1109/ICSENS.2007.4388531 (DOI)000254563600213 ()2-s2.0-48349132836 (Scopus ID)5035 (Local ID)978-1-4244-1262-4 (ISBN)5035 (Archive number)5035 (OAI)
Conference
6th IEEE Sensors Conference, Oct 28-31, 2007, Atlanta
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23 Last updated: 2017-10-20Bibliographically approved
2. Fabrication and evaluation of a thermal sensor formed on a thin photosensitive epoxy membrane with low thermal conductivity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication and evaluation of a thermal sensor formed on a thin photosensitive epoxy membrane with low thermal conductivity
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2008 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL VACUUM CONGRESS/13TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SURFACE SCIENCE/INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NANOSCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2008, p. 082048-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article present the fabrication and development of a thin metal film bolometer IR detector connected in a Wheatstone bridge configuration. The bolometer is constructed on a 4 μm thin self-supported SU-8 2002 membrane. A polymer material such as SU-8 has low thermal conductivity and is applied using standard photolithographic processing step, and this could increase detector sensitivity and lower the production cost. Thermal simulation results are presented, which verifies SU-8 as a better choice of materials compared to common membrane materials such as Si and Silicon nitride. Measurements on the fabricated nickel resistance bolometer on SU-8 2002 membrane show a sensitivity of 9.3 V/W when radiated by an IR laser with a wavelength of 1.56 μm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2008
Series
Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Online Edition), ISSN 1742-6596 ; 100
Keyword
Bolometer, SU-8, IR, infrared, thermoelectric
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-359 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/100/8/082048 (DOI)000275655200326 ()5036 (Local ID)5036 (Archive number)5036 (OAI)
Conference
17th International Vacuum Congress/13th International Conference on Surface Science/Internatinal Conference on Nanoscience and Technology, Jul 02-06, 2007, Stockholm, Sweden
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
3. The effect of mechanical stress on lateral-effect position sensitive detector characteristics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of mechanical stress on lateral-effect position sensitive detector characteristics
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2006 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 563, no 1, p. 150-154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used in noncontact measurement systems. In order to minimize the size of such systems, interest has increased in mounting the PSD chip directly onto printed circuit boards (PCBs). Stress may be induced in the PSD because of the large differences in thermal expansion coefficients, as well as the long-term geometrical stability of the chip packaging. Mechanical stress has previously been shown to have an effect on the performance of semiconductors. The accuracy, or linearity, of a lateral effect PSD is largely dependent on the homogeneity of the resistive layer. Variations of the resistivity over the active area of the PSD will result in an uneven distribution of photo-generated current, and hence an error in the readout position. In this work experiments were performed to investigate the influence of anisotropic mechanical stress in terms of nonlinearity. PSD chips of 60×3 mm active area were subjected, respectively, to different amounts of compressive and tensile stress to determine the influence on the linearity.

Keyword
PSD; position-sensitive detector; position-sensing detector; mechanical stress; piezoresistivity
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-360 (URN)10.1016/j.nima.2006.01.084 (DOI)000238764700036 ()2-s2.0-33744993214 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Jul 04-07, 2005, Grenoble, France
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Note

7th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Jul 04-07, 2005, Grenoble, France

Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2009-03-24 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Manufacturing and characterization of a modified four-quadrant position sensitive detector for out-door applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manufacturing and characterization of a modified four-quadrant position sensitive detector for out-door applications
2004 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 531, no 1-2, p. 134-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Position sensing detectors (PSDs) are useful in many applications such as vibration, displacement and triangulation measurements. In this paper we have constructed a novel structure, which has higher inter-electrode resistance than a lateral effect PSD and is more robust to atmospheric turbulence than a conventional four-quadrant PSD (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 466 (2001) 183). The detector structure is useful for applications with detector windows less than 0.5 x 0.5 mm(2), but the nonlinearity is the main concern for a detector of that size. Without any corrections for non-linearity the standard deviation of the error is 9 mum (2.2%). Using a simple analytical expression and a 2-d correction-function stored in a look-up table the positioning error is reduced to 6 (1.5%) and 2 (0.5%) mum, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2004
Keyword
4Q, PSD, detectors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-361 (URN)10.1016/j.nima.2004.05.105 (DOI)000224233400019 ()
Conference
5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Sep 07-11, 2003, Riga, Latvia
Note
5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Sep 07-11, 2003, Riga LatviaAvailable from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved

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