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Respiration measurements can assess the fitness of Gammarus pulex (L.) after exposure to different contaminants: experiments with wood ash, cadmium and aluminum
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
2005 (English)In: Archiv für Hydrobiologie, ISSN 0003-9136, Vol. 164, no 4, 479-491 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wood ash application has been suggested as a means to mitigate acidification of surface waters. However little is known about the effects of wood ash to freshwater organisms. A Clark-type oxygen electrode was used to investigate the effects of wood ash, cadmium and aluminum on the respiration of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex (L.). Harmful effects following wood ash addition were primarily found to be explained by elevated pH. At high concentrations (> 1 g/l) of wood ash the respiration of G. pulex decreased when no adjustment of pH was made, a response that was negatively correlated to the elevated pH (r = -0.43). An ion-related response was also detected in the pH-adjusted (pH 7) tests, although it was not statistically significant. Cadmium proved to be sublethal in the range of 0.2-0.4mg/l in a 24-h exposure. Mortality was 100% at 0.5 and 1.0mg Cd/l. No effects were detected after exposure to Al, due to the high pH (pH 7-8) of the solutions and the subsequently low concentrations of labile monomeric Al. We demonstrate that the method described in this paper could be a useful probe for the detection of sublethal concentrations of contaminants in freshwater ecosystems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 164, no 4, 479-491 p.
Keyword [en]
GAMMARUS PULEX; WOOD ASH; CADMIUM; ALUMINUM; RESPIRATION; NUTRIENTS; PH
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-355DOI: 10.1127/0003-9136/2005/0164-0479ISI: 000234433000004Archive number: 3390OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-355DiVA: diva2:1970
Note
VR-BiologyAvailable from: 2008-12-04 Created: 2008-11-19 Last updated: 2009-11-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effects of wood ash on freshwater organisms and aquatic forest ecosystems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of wood ash on freshwater organisms and aquatic forest ecosystems
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wood ash application (WAA) has been recommended mainly for two reasons; i) to avoid depletion of minerals in the soil due to whole tree harvest in the forestry and ii) to mitigate harmful effects of acidification of soil and surface waters. In conclusion, the effects on terrestrial ecosystems and, especially, tree growth, can be attributed to the properties of the ash, the dose applied and the specific site at which the ash is applied. The research conducted on the effects of WAA on limnological ecosystems is very limited, and the major purpose of the present thesis was to gain knowledge of the effects of wood ash to different freshwater organisms, and the more comprehensive, limnological effects of WAA in the first stream in Bispgården, Sweden.

Effects of wood ash solutions on the unicellular alga Euglena gracilis Klebs, the amphipod Gammarus pulex L., and the moss Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. were investigated under laboratory conditions. Common in all three species was the decline in performance (growth/velocity/respiration/oxygen evolution) when the concentration of wood ash exceeded 5 g/l and no adjustment of pH was done (alkaline solution). In contrast, different movement parameters (motility, upwards swimming and velocity) in E. gracilis (neutral conditions), and increased growth of F. antipyretica with increased concentrations of wood ash indicated that nutrients in the ash was bioavailable for these organisms. There was no evidence of toxic effects on the organisms from metals or other compounds as a result from exposure to wood ash solutions in the present studies.

The field study was conducted in a forest area close to Bispgården, about 100 km NW from Sundsvall, Sweden. The catchment area (50 ha) of the stream Fanbergsbäcken was treated with wood ash in September of 2004 (3,000 kg/ha;selfhardened crush-ash). In general, both biological (diatoms) and chemical (pH, alkalinity, and aluminum (Al) measurements) indicators have shown no significant effect on acidification parameters from the addition of wood ash. There was, however, evidence of an increased pH during spring flood, accompanied with a decrease in the frequency of low pH values (<5.6) during spring flood. In addition to this, alkalinity was significantly higher in the period 2005-2006, compared to that of 2003. High concentrations of toxic forms of Al repeatedly occured in the stream Fanbergsbäcken, and the WAA did not affect the frequencies of high concentrations of toxic Al forms (<50 μg/l). Both the moss F. antipyretica and the leaves from Alnus incana displayed increased potassium (K) concentrations, although other nutrients did not increase from WAA. In conclusion, no evidence of WAA being effective in restoring or improving the ecological status of freshwater environments has been established, either in the literature or in the present field study. On the other hand, there were no indications of harmful effects due to WAA, either. However, we still do not know the effects of wood ash on several organisms (predominantly invertebrates) inhabiting small ponds and other, temporary or permanent, freshwater ecosystems. In the context of WAA, these environments and organisms have not attended any attention in the research published to date, and future studies are strongly encouraged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2007. 29 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 18
Keyword
Wood ash, Euglena gracilis, Gammarus pulex, Fontinalis antipyretica, pH, alkalinity, toxicity, nutrients, first order stream, Askåterföring, Vedaska, Akvatiska näringssystem, Mineralnäring
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36 (URN)5446 (Local ID)978-91-85317-43-1 (ISBN)5446 (Archive number)5446 (OAI)
Public defence
2007-05-25, O102, Campus Sundsvall, Sundsvall, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-11-20 Created: 2007-11-20 Last updated: 2009-05-06Bibliographically approved

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