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Comparative analyses of forest fuels in a life cycle perspective with a focus on transport systems
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
Responsible organisation
2008 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 52, no 10, 1190-1197 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Local, national and international transportation of forest fuels with regard to costs, primary energy use and CO2 emission was analysed. The main issue was the extent to which both mode and distance of transport affect the monetary cost, CO2 emission and primary energy use arising from the use of various types of forest residues for energy purpose. Local applications proved the most efficient options of those studied. Chipping of bundles at a terminal, for transport by rail and sea to national or international end-users, has low costs and produces only modest CO2 emissions. For the pellet options, the cost is about the same as for chipping, but require more primary energy and emit more CO2. The traditional chipping system is more expensive than the other options. The costs of the international options over a transport distance of 1100 km vary between 21 and 28 €2007/MWh, whereas pellet options cost between 22 and 25 €2007/MWh. The primary energy required for transport of logging residues vis-à-vis pellets falls in the range 4–7% and 2–4%, respectively, of the bio-energy delivered. The primary energy needed to produce pellets gives them a lower fossil fuel substitution rate per hectare, compared with bundle systems. Similarly, for chip systems vis-à-vis bundle systems, the biomass delivered to the conversion plant is reduced by the greater physical dry-matter losses entailed by chipping systems in the forest-fuel chain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 52, no 10, 1190-1197 p.
Keyword [en]
Chips; Bundles; Pellets; Transportation; Primary energy; CO2 emissions; Costs; Dry-matter losses; Life cycle perspective
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-347DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2008.06.009ISI: 000259888000010Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-51049102118OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-347DiVA: diva2:1960
Available from: 2008-11-18 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2009-03-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Forest-Fuel Systems: Comparative Analyses in a Life Cycle Perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest-Fuel Systems: Comparative Analyses in a Life Cycle Perspective
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Forest fuels can be recovered, stored and handled in several ways and these different ways have different implications for CO2 emissions. In this thesis, comparative analyses were made on different forest-fuel systems. The analyses focused on the recovery and transport systems. Costs, primary energy use, CO2 emissions, storage losses and work environment associated with the use of forest fuel for energy were examined by using systems analysis methodology in a life cycle perspective. The bundle system showed less dry-matter losses and lower costs than the chip system. The difference was mainly due to more efficient forwarding, hauling and large-scale chipping. The potential of allergic reactions by workers did not differ significantly between the systems. In difficult terrain types, the loose material and roadside bundling systems become as economical as the clearcut bundle system. The stump and small roundwood systems showed the greatest increase in costs when the availability of forest fuel decreased. Stumps required the greatest increase in primary energy use. Forest fuels are a limited resource. A key factor is the amount of biomass recovered per hectare. Combined recovery of logging residues, stumps and small roundwood from thinnings from the same forest area give a high potential of reduced net CO2 emissions per hectare of forest land. Compensation fertilization becomes more cost-effective and the primary energy use for ash spreading becomes low – about 0,25‰. The total amount of available forest fuel in Sweden is 66 TWh per year. This would cost 1 billion €2007 to recover and would avoid 6.9 Mtonne carbon if fossil coal were replaced. In southern Sweden almost all forest fuel is obtainable in high-concentration areas where it is easy to recover. When determining potential CO2 emissions avoidance, the transportation distance was found to be less important than the other factors considered in this work. The type of transportation system did not have a significant influence over the CO2 avoided per hectare of forest land. The most important factor analysed here was the type of fossil fuel (coal, oil or natural gas) replaced together with the net amount of biomass recovered per hectare of forest land. Large-scale, long-distance transportation of biofuels from central Sweden has the potential to be cost-effective and also attractive in terms of CO2 emissions. A bundle recovery system meant that more biomass per hectare could be delivered to end-users than a pellet system due to conversion losses when producing pellets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik, 2008
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 56
Keyword
forest fuels, recovery systems, transportation, cost, primary energy use, CO2 emission, forest-fuel potential, life cycle perspective
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-206 (URN)978-91-86073-00-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-05, Q221, Q, Akademigatan 1, Östersund, 12:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-05-14 Created: 2008-05-14 Last updated: 2009-03-11Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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