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Comparative analysis of wood chips and bundles – Costs, carbon dioxide emissions, dry-matter losses and allergic reactions
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
2010 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 34, no 1, 82-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are multiple systems for the collection, processing, and transport of forest residues for use as a fuel. We compare two systems in use in Sweden to analyze differences in fuel cost, CO2 emissions, dry-matter loss, and potential for allergic reactions. We compare a bundle system with the traditional Swedish chip system, and then do an in-depth comparison of a Finnish bundle system with the Swedish bundle system. Bundle systems have lower costs, while the allergic reactions do not differ significantly between the systems. The bundle machine is expensive, but results in high productivity and in an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system has higher primary energy use and CO2 emissions, but the lower dry-matter losses in the bundle system chain give CO2 emissions per delivered MWh almost as low as for the chip system. Also, lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the clear-cut area. This leads to a higher possible substitution of fossil fuels per hectare with the bundle system, and that more CO2 emissions from fossil fuel can be avoided per hectare than in the chip system. The Finnish bundle system with its more effective compressing and forwarding is more cost- and energy-effective than the Swedish bundle system, but Swedish bundle systems can be adapted to be more effective in both aspects.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 34, no 1, 82-90 p.
Keyword [en]
Forest fuel; Chips; Bundles; Life cycle perspective
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-345DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.10.002ISI: 000274575800010Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-72649084516OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-345DiVA: diva2:1958
Available from: 2008-11-18 Created: 2008-11-17 Last updated: 2011-04-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Forest-Fuel Systems: Comparative Analyses in a Life Cycle Perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest-Fuel Systems: Comparative Analyses in a Life Cycle Perspective
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Forest fuels can be recovered, stored and handled in several ways and these different ways have different implications for CO2 emissions. In this thesis, comparative analyses were made on different forest-fuel systems. The analyses focused on the recovery and transport systems. Costs, primary energy use, CO2 emissions, storage losses and work environment associated with the use of forest fuel for energy were examined by using systems analysis methodology in a life cycle perspective. The bundle system showed less dry-matter losses and lower costs than the chip system. The difference was mainly due to more efficient forwarding, hauling and large-scale chipping. The potential of allergic reactions by workers did not differ significantly between the systems. In difficult terrain types, the loose material and roadside bundling systems become as economical as the clearcut bundle system. The stump and small roundwood systems showed the greatest increase in costs when the availability of forest fuel decreased. Stumps required the greatest increase in primary energy use. Forest fuels are a limited resource. A key factor is the amount of biomass recovered per hectare. Combined recovery of logging residues, stumps and small roundwood from thinnings from the same forest area give a high potential of reduced net CO2 emissions per hectare of forest land. Compensation fertilization becomes more cost-effective and the primary energy use for ash spreading becomes low – about 0,25‰. The total amount of available forest fuel in Sweden is 66 TWh per year. This would cost 1 billion €2007 to recover and would avoid 6.9 Mtonne carbon if fossil coal were replaced. In southern Sweden almost all forest fuel is obtainable in high-concentration areas where it is easy to recover. When determining potential CO2 emissions avoidance, the transportation distance was found to be less important than the other factors considered in this work. The type of transportation system did not have a significant influence over the CO2 avoided per hectare of forest land. The most important factor analysed here was the type of fossil fuel (coal, oil or natural gas) replaced together with the net amount of biomass recovered per hectare of forest land. Large-scale, long-distance transportation of biofuels from central Sweden has the potential to be cost-effective and also attractive in terms of CO2 emissions. A bundle recovery system meant that more biomass per hectare could be delivered to end-users than a pellet system due to conversion losses when producing pellets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik, 2008
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 56
Keyword
forest fuels, recovery systems, transportation, cost, primary energy use, CO2 emission, forest-fuel potential, life cycle perspective
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-206 (URN)978-91-86073-00-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-05, Q221, Q, Akademigatan 1, Östersund, 12:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-05-14 Created: 2008-05-14 Last updated: 2009-03-11Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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