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Position Sensitive Detectors: Device Technology and Applications in Spectroscopy
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with the development, processing and characterization of position sensitive detectors and, in addition, to the development of compact and cost effective spectrometers.

Position sensitive detectors are used to measure, with great accuracy and speed, the position of a light spot incident on the surface. Their main use is for triangulation, displacement and vibration measurements.

A type of position sensitive detector based on the MOS principle and using optically transparent indium tin oxide as a gate contact has been developed. This type of detector utilizes the MOS principle where an induced channel forms beneath the gate oxide in the surface of the Silicon substrate.

One and two dimensional detectors have both been fabricated and characterized. The first measurements showed that the linearity did not fulfil expectations and it was suspected that stress induced by the gate contact could be the reason for the seemingly high nonlinearity.

Further investigations into both the p-n junction and the MOS type position sensitive detectors lead to the conclusion that the indium tin oxide gate is responsible for inducing a substantial stress in the surface of the detector, thus giving rise to increased position nonlinearity. The heat treatment step which was conducted was determined to be critical as either a too short or too long heat treatment resulted in stress in the gate and channel leading to position nonlinearity. If a correctly timed heat treatment is performed then the detector’s linearity is in parity with the best commercial position sensitive detectors.

In addition, the development of very small, compact and cost effective spectrometers has been performed with the aim of constructing devices for use in the process industry. The development of a wedge shaped array of Fabry-Perot interferometers that can be mounted directly on top of a detector makes it possible to construct a very compact spectrometer using the minimum amount of optics. This wedge interferometer has been evaluated by means of array pixel detectors and position sensitive detectors for both the infrared and the visible wavelength ranges.

When used with a position sensitive detector it is necessary to use a slit to record the intensity of the interferogram for many points over the detector, equivalent to pixels on an array detector. Usually the use of moving parts in a spectrometer will impose the use of high precision scanning mechanisms and calibration. By using a position sensitive detector for the interferogram readout both the position and the intensity are known for every measurement point and thus the demands placed on the scanning system are minimized.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling behandlar utveckling, processning och karakterisering av positionskänsliga detektorer och även utveckling av kompakta, kostnadseffektiva spektrometrar.

Positionskänsliga detektorer används för att mäta positionen av en infallande ljuspunkt på ytan med hög noggrannhet och hastighet. Det huvudsakliga användningsområdet är triangulering, förskjutnings och vibrationsmätningar.

En typ av positionskänslig detektor baserad på MOS principen och som använder optiskt transparent indium-tenn-oxid som ”gate” kontakt har utvecklats och karakteriserats. Denna typ av detektor utnyttjar MOS principen där en inducerad kanal bildas under ”gate” oxiden i ytan på kiselsubstratet.

Både en endimensionell och en tvådimensionell detektor har tillverkats och karakteriserats. De första mätningarna visade på att linjäriteten inte var den förväntade och det misstänktes att stress inducerad av ”gate” kontakten kunde vara orsaken till den tillsynes för höga ickelinjäriteten.

Ytterligare undersökning på både p-n och MOS positionskänsliga detektorer ledde till slutsatsen att indium-tenn-oxid ”gate” kontakten är ansvarig för att orsaka en väsentlig stress i ytan på detektorn och därigenom orsaka ökad olinjäritet i positionsbestämningen. Värmebehandlingssteget som utförs fastställdes vara kritiskt där en för kort eller för lång värmebehandling resulterar i stress i ”gate” kontakten och kanalen som leder till olinjäritet. Om en korrekt värmebehandling utförs så är de tillverkade detektorernas linjäritet i paritet med de bästa kommersiella positionskänsliga detektorerna.

Utveckling av väldigt små, kompakta och kostnadseffektiva spektrometrar har också utförts med målet att konstruera enheter för användning i process industrin. Utvecklingen av en kilformad ”array” av Fabry-Perot interferometrar som kan monteras direkt på en detektor gör det möjligt att konstruera en väldigt kompakt spektrometer med minimalt med optik. Denna kilformade interferometer har utvärderats med arraydetektorer, både för det infraröda och det synliga våglängdsområdet, och också med positionskänsliga detektorer.

När den används med en positionskänslig detektor så är det nödvändigt att använda en springa att begränsa ljuset med för att registrera intensiteten av interferrogrammet i många punkter över detektorn, vilket är likvärdigt med pixlar på en arraydetektor. Vanligtvis gör användandet av rörliga delar i en spektrometer att mekanismer med hög precision och kalibrering måste användas. Genom att använda en positionskänslig detektor för att läsa ut interferrogrammet så kommer både positionen såväl som ljusintensiteten att vara känd i varje mätpunkt och därför minimeras kravet på förflyttningsmekanismen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier , 2008.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 48
Keywords [en]
Position sensitive detectors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-202ISBN: 978-91-85317-91-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-202DiVA, id: diva2:1939
Public defence
2008-05-15, O102, O, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-04-16 Created: 2008-04-16 Last updated: 2009-01-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1.
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2.
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3. Processing and Characterization of a MOS Type Tetra Lateral Position Sensitive Detector with Indium Tin Oxide Gate Contact
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Processing and Characterization of a MOS Type Tetra Lateral Position Sensitive Detector with Indium Tin Oxide Gate Contact
2008 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 8, no 9-10, p. 1704-1709Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A 2-D tetra lateral position sensitive detector (PSD) based on the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) principle has been manufactured and characterized. The active area of the device is 5 nun x 5 mm and the intention is to use the central 4 nun x 4 nun for low nonlinearity measurements. The gate contact is made of indium tin oxide (ITO) that is a degenerate electrically conducting semiconductor, which, in addition, is also transparent in the visible part of the spectrum. The use of a MOS structure results in a processing with no necessity to use implantation or diffusion in order to make the resistive p-layer as in a conventional p-n junction lateral effect PSD. Position measurements show good linearity in the middle 4 nun x 4 mm area. Within the middle 2.1 mm x 2.1 mm, the nonlinearity is within 1.7% of the active area with a position detection error of maximum 60 mu m. Measured MOS IV characteristics are compared to a level 3 spice model fit and show good agreement. The threshold voltage is determined to be -0.03 V. Responsivity measurements show a high sensitivity in the visible spectral region.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-324 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2008.2004303 (DOI)000260384900030 ()2-s2.0-78149253010 (Scopus ID)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Note

VR-Ecology

Available from: 2008-11-30 Created: 2008-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4.
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5.
The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
6.
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7. Evaluation of an Integrated Fourier-Transform Spectrometer Utilizing a Lateral Effect Position Sensitive Detector with a Multi-Channel Fabry-Perot Interferometer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of an Integrated Fourier-Transform Spectrometer Utilizing a Lateral Effect Position Sensitive Detector with a Multi-Channel Fabry-Perot Interferometer
2008 (English)In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 045306-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The basis of this paper is the evaluation of an integrated multi-channel Fourier-transform (FT) spectrometer based on a multi-channel wedge Fabry-Perot interferometer and a one-dimensional lateral effect position sensitive detector (PSD). The use of a PSD for an interferogram readout allows for a simple scanning mechanism with no requirement for any position reference. The use of a wedge-shaped interferometer makes it possible to integrate it directly onto the PSD surface, thus producing a very compact spectrometer. The capabilities of the spectrometer are demonstrated by absorption spectral measurements using a reference sample. In addition, spectral measurements on 532 nm DPSS and 632.8 nm He-Ne lasers are presented. The resolution of the spectrometer is approximately 5 nm. The evaluated spectrometer set-up can be used in applications where compact and low cost spectrometers are required, such as in process control and in education. Further, it is shown that there are deteriorations in very high accuracy position measurements, which are caused by changes in incident light intensity. A model describing the above-mentioned nonlinearities was developed based on analysing the equivalent circuit for PSDs and parameters such as leakage current and serial resistance. Additionally, a method is proposed to assist in the reduction of the nonlinearity caused by this effect.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-328 (URN)10.1088/0957-0233/19/4/045306 (DOI)000254406700023 ()2-s2.0-42549132472 (Scopus ID)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-12-09 Created: 2008-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
8. Electroless deposition and silicidation of Ni contacts into p-type Porous Silicon
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electroless deposition and silicidation of Ni contacts into p-type Porous Silicon
2008 (English)In: Journal of porous materials, ISSN 1380-2224, E-ISSN 1573-4854, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 335-341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Porous Silicon (PS) has attracted much attention since the discovery of its photo luminescent behavior. It has also been used for various other applications such as electroluminescent light emitting-diodes (LEDs), photodetectors and solar cells. For such devices, it is important to make good metallic Ohmic contacts to the PS in order to maximize the efficiency. In order to produce buried contacts, barrier layers, Schottky devices, etc. in PS, it is advantageous to deposit metal that covers not only the surface of the porous layer, but also the inside walls and the bottom of the pores. In this work experiments were performed to examine the morphology and properties of electroless deposition of Nickel into p-type PS and subsequent formation of Nickel silicide after heat treatment. Circular PS samples of 6 mm diameter were produced by anodizing p-type Silicon wafers for 15 min and were subsequently plated with Ni using three different plating baths. The pores are on average 20 µm deep and 4 µm wide. Two samples of each type were heat treated in an nitrogen atmosphere for one hour at 400 and 600°C respectively to produce Nickel silicide. Reference samples were made by means of electron beam evaporation of Ni. SEM micrographs show that the best pore coverage was achieved using the Ni plating bath containing hypophosphite. I–V characterization shows that different rectifying and Ohmic contacts can be formed between electroless deposited Ni and PS depending on the conditions of the heat treatment. XRD and EDX characterizations show that both the NiSi and Ni2Si phases exist in the sample at the same time.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8335 (URN)10.1007/s10934-006-9090-2 (DOI)000255114900014 ()2-s2.0-42449142758 (Scopus ID)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2009-01-19 Created: 2009-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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