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Evaluation of an Integrated Fourier-Transform Spectrometer Utilizing a Lateral Effect Position Sensitive Detector with a Multi-Channel Fabry-Perot Interferometer
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Electronics design division)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Electronics design division)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Electronics design division)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3790-0729
Responsible organisation
2008 (English)In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 19, no 4, 045306- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The basis of this paper is the evaluation of an integrated multi-channel Fourier-transform (FT) spectrometer based on a multi-channel wedge Fabry-Perot interferometer and a one-dimensional lateral effect position sensitive detector (PSD). The use of a PSD for an interferogram readout allows for a simple scanning mechanism with no requirement for any position reference. The use of a wedge-shaped interferometer makes it possible to integrate it directly onto the PSD surface, thus producing a very compact spectrometer. The capabilities of the spectrometer are demonstrated by absorption spectral measurements using a reference sample. In addition, spectral measurements on 532 nm DPSS and 632.8 nm He-Ne lasers are presented. The resolution of the spectrometer is approximately 5 nm. The evaluated spectrometer set-up can be used in applications where compact and low cost spectrometers are required, such as in process control and in education. Further, it is shown that there are deteriorations in very high accuracy position measurements, which are caused by changes in incident light intensity. A model describing the above-mentioned nonlinearities was developed based on analysing the equivalent circuit for PSDs and parameters such as leakage current and serial resistance. Additionally, a method is proposed to assist in the reduction of the nonlinearity caused by this effect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 19, no 4, 045306- p.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-328DOI: 10.1088/0957-0233/19/4/045306ISI: 000254406700023Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-42549132472OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-328DiVA: diva2:1937
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-12-09 Created: 2008-11-02 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Position Sensitive Detectors: Device Technology and Applications in Spectroscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Position Sensitive Detectors: Device Technology and Applications in Spectroscopy
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with the development, processing and characterization of position sensitive detectors and, in addition, to the development of compact and cost effective spectrometers.

Position sensitive detectors are used to measure, with great accuracy and speed, the position of a light spot incident on the surface. Their main use is for triangulation, displacement and vibration measurements.

A type of position sensitive detector based on the MOS principle and using optically transparent indium tin oxide as a gate contact has been developed. This type of detector utilizes the MOS principle where an induced channel forms beneath the gate oxide in the surface of the Silicon substrate.

One and two dimensional detectors have both been fabricated and characterized. The first measurements showed that the linearity did not fulfil expectations and it was suspected that stress induced by the gate contact could be the reason for the seemingly high nonlinearity.

Further investigations into both the p-n junction and the MOS type position sensitive detectors lead to the conclusion that the indium tin oxide gate is responsible for inducing a substantial stress in the surface of the detector, thus giving rise to increased position nonlinearity. The heat treatment step which was conducted was determined to be critical as either a too short or too long heat treatment resulted in stress in the gate and channel leading to position nonlinearity. If a correctly timed heat treatment is performed then the detector’s linearity is in parity with the best commercial position sensitive detectors.

In addition, the development of very small, compact and cost effective spectrometers has been performed with the aim of constructing devices for use in the process industry. The development of a wedge shaped array of Fabry-Perot interferometers that can be mounted directly on top of a detector makes it possible to construct a very compact spectrometer using the minimum amount of optics. This wedge interferometer has been evaluated by means of array pixel detectors and position sensitive detectors for both the infrared and the visible wavelength ranges.

When used with a position sensitive detector it is necessary to use a slit to record the intensity of the interferogram for many points over the detector, equivalent to pixels on an array detector. Usually the use of moving parts in a spectrometer will impose the use of high precision scanning mechanisms and calibration. By using a position sensitive detector for the interferogram readout both the position and the intensity are known for every measurement point and thus the demands placed on the scanning system are minimized.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling behandlar utveckling, processning och karakterisering av positionskänsliga detektorer och även utveckling av kompakta, kostnadseffektiva spektrometrar.

Positionskänsliga detektorer används för att mäta positionen av en infallande ljuspunkt på ytan med hög noggrannhet och hastighet. Det huvudsakliga användningsområdet är triangulering, förskjutnings och vibrationsmätningar.

En typ av positionskänslig detektor baserad på MOS principen och som använder optiskt transparent indium-tenn-oxid som ”gate” kontakt har utvecklats och karakteriserats. Denna typ av detektor utnyttjar MOS principen där en inducerad kanal bildas under ”gate” oxiden i ytan på kiselsubstratet.

Både en endimensionell och en tvådimensionell detektor har tillverkats och karakteriserats. De första mätningarna visade på att linjäriteten inte var den förväntade och det misstänktes att stress inducerad av ”gate” kontakten kunde vara orsaken till den tillsynes för höga ickelinjäriteten.

Ytterligare undersökning på både p-n och MOS positionskänsliga detektorer ledde till slutsatsen att indium-tenn-oxid ”gate” kontakten är ansvarig för att orsaka en väsentlig stress i ytan på detektorn och därigenom orsaka ökad olinjäritet i positionsbestämningen. Värmebehandlingssteget som utförs fastställdes vara kritiskt där en för kort eller för lång värmebehandling resulterar i stress i ”gate” kontakten och kanalen som leder till olinjäritet. Om en korrekt värmebehandling utförs så är de tillverkade detektorernas linjäritet i paritet med de bästa kommersiella positionskänsliga detektorerna.

Utveckling av väldigt små, kompakta och kostnadseffektiva spektrometrar har också utförts med målet att konstruera enheter för användning i process industrin. Utvecklingen av en kilformad ”array” av Fabry-Perot interferometrar som kan monteras direkt på en detektor gör det möjligt att konstruera en väldigt kompakt spektrometer med minimalt med optik. Denna kilformade interferometer har utvärderats med arraydetektorer, både för det infraröda och det synliga våglängdsområdet, och också med positionskänsliga detektorer.

När den används med en positionskänslig detektor så är det nödvändigt att använda en springa att begränsa ljuset med för att registrera intensiteten av interferrogrammet i många punkter över detektorn, vilket är likvärdigt med pixlar på en arraydetektor. Vanligtvis gör användandet av rörliga delar i en spektrometer att mekanismer med hög precision och kalibrering måste användas. Genom att använda en positionskänslig detektor för att läsa ut interferrogrammet så kommer både positionen såväl som ljusintensiteten att vara känd i varje mätpunkt och därför minimeras kravet på förflyttningsmekanismen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier, 2008
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 48
Keyword
Position sensitive detectors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-202 (URN)978-91-85317-91-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-15, O102, O, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-04-16 Created: 2008-04-16 Last updated: 2009-01-19Bibliographically approved

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Andersson, HenrikManuilskiy, AnatoliyThungström, GöranNilsson, Hans-Erik
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