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Rotational Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting Through Variable Reluctance
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3222-7165
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Rotating components are found in a majority of modern industrial applications.As key parts for machinery operations, rotating components need tobe monitored in order to detect and prevent machine failures. This requiresvarious sensor devices, which are electronic systems that detect and respondto physical quantities obtained from rotating components or their surroundingenvironments.

With the rapid development of semiconductor technology, sensor deviceshave low power consumption, enabling energy harvesting to remove the dependenceon battery or wired power solutions and thus leading to self-poweredsensing applications. The kinetic energy of rotating components provides aubiquitous and stable energy source that can be exploited, resulting in rotationalenergy harvesting as a promising solution to produce electrical powerfor sensor devices.

The research in this thesis focuses on the rotational energy harvesting bymeans of variable reluctance (VR) principle. In the literature, despite VR energyharvesting being a suitable candidate for the conversion of rotary kineticmotion, a comprehensive study on this energy harvesting system is still lacking.Moreover, low rotational speeds lead to a low level of extracted energyand negative mechanical effects on the rotary host which makes the deploymentof a VR energy harvesting to achieve a self-powered sensing applicationin rotating environment challenging, requiring a closer investigation onthe design and implementation. Based on theoretical analyses and numericalsimulations, combined with experimental validations, this research expandson the study of VR energy harvesting by exploring various structural designs,introducing a systematical optimization, demonstrating a sensing application,and investigating different circuits for AC/DC energy conversion to minimizethe circuit losses. The results of this research provide a guideline for enhancingthe performance of VR energy harvesting in low-speed rotational applications,which expands the research field on energy harvesting for realizingself-powered wireless sensing systems used in rotating environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mid Sweden University , 2022. , p. 48
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 365
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-44366ISBN: 978-91-89341-52-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-44366DiVA, id: diva2:1639204
Public defence
2022-03-23, C312, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbete opublicerat: delarbete 4 inskickat.

At the time of the doctoral defence the following paper was unpublished: paper 4 submitted.

Available from: 2022-02-21 Created: 2022-02-20 Last updated: 2022-06-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Survey on Variable Reluctance Energy Harvesters in Low-Speed Rotating Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Survey on Variable Reluctance Energy Harvesters in Low-Speed Rotating Applications
2018 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 3426-3435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy harvesting converts ambient energy to electrical energy that can be used to power, for example, sensors and sensor systems. Variable reluctance energy harvesting is a suitable candidate for the conversion of rotary kinetic motion, an energy form commonly found in industrial applications. The implementation of a variable reluctance energy harvester, however, has a significant effect on its performance and is not well studied. In this paper, we therefore conduct a survey on different structures of variable reluctance energy harvesters. Six existing structures, previously used in variable reluctance sensors, are presented and analyzed according to their approaches for magnetic flux change improvement. Together with a newly proposed structure, these structures are evaluated based on a finite element analysis, and their results are compared. It is demonstrated that the choice of structure considerably affects the power output of the harvester and is dependent on the improvement approaches the structure utilizes. The newly proposed structure outperforms all existing structures with respect to power output and power density, which comes at a cost of higher parasitic torque generation. A 53-fold power improvement over the reference and an 1.2-fold power improvement over the next best structure is observed. As a result, applications of variable reluctance energy harvesting become viable even at low angular velocities.

Keywords
Energy harvesting, sensor systems, finite element analysis, electromagnetic induction, magnetic flux
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33263 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2018.2808377 (DOI)000428585900039 ()2-s2.0-85042350692 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)
Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2022-02-20Bibliographically approved
2. Design, modeling and optimization of an m-shaped variable reluctance energy harvester for rotating applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design, modeling and optimization of an m-shaped variable reluctance energy harvester for rotating applications
2019 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 195, p. 1280-1294Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The variable reluctance principle can be used to convert rotational kinetic energy into electrical energy, creating a Variable Reluctance Energy Harvester (VREH) based on electromagnetic induction. This can be used to implement self-sustaining wireless sensors in rotating applications. In this paper, we present and investigate a novel design of a VREH with high volumetric power density that targets low-speed rotating applications. The design uses an m-shaped pole-piece and two opposing magnets. We theoretically analyze key design parameters that influence the VREH’s output power, and relate these parameters to geometrical design factors of the proposed structure. Key design factors include the coil height, the permanent magnet height and the tooth height. A method based on numerical simulations is introduced, enabling to determine the optimal geometrical dimensions of the proposed structure under given size-constraints. The results demonstrate that the method leads to optimal structure configurations, which has been evaluated for different cases and is verified experimentally. Good agreement between numerical simulations and experiments are reported with deviations in output power estimation below 3%. The optimized m-shaped VREH, moreover, provides output power levels sufficient for wireless sensor operation, even in low-speed rotating applications.

Keywords
Energy harvesting, Rotational energy, Variable reluctance, Power density, Design method, Sensor systems
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36250 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2019.05.082 (DOI)000482244300099 ()2-s2.0-85066501919 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, ASIS 20140323Vinnova, 2017-03725
Available from: 2019-06-05 Created: 2019-06-05 Last updated: 2022-02-20Bibliographically approved
3. Theoretical modeling and experimental verification of rotational variable reluctance energy harvesters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theoretical modeling and experimental verification of rotational variable reluctance energy harvesters
Show others...
2021 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 233, article id 113906Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy harvesting has great potential for powering low-power wireless sensor nodes by converting environmental energies into the electricity. It can be widely used for real-time online industrial monitoring. Among different transducers, the variable reluctance energy harvester (VREH) has attracted much attention due to the great performance for the low-speed rotations. However, there is a lack of precise models for performance prediction. In this paper, a new modeling method for VREH is proposed to predict the output voltage. A combined Substituting Angle - Magnetic Field Division modeling method is presented to accurately model the magnetic permeance of the air–gap for the VREH. Then, the magnetic flux change in the magnetic circuit is derived to calculate the voltage response of the coil. The numerical and experimental results of voltage responses verify the effectiveness of proposed model with the maximum error of 4%. The influence of some key factors on voltage response is investigated, including the thickness of air–gap and tooth height. Moreover, power analysis demonstrates that the output power increases from 5.06 mW to 46.7 mW with the rotational speed from 100 rpm to 300 rpm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Energy harvestingVariable reluctance, Rotational motion, Air–gap magnetic permeance, Theoretical modeling
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-41207 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2021.113906 (DOI)000632522700002 ()2-s2.0-85101413460 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), IB2019-8169
Available from: 2021-02-17 Created: 2021-02-17 Last updated: 2022-06-20Bibliographically approved
4. Three-phase variable reluctance energy harvesting
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three-phase variable reluctance energy harvesting
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2022 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management: X, ISSN 2590-1745, Vol. 14, article id 100211Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A variable reluctance energy harvester (VREH) based on electromagnetic induction is developed for generating electrical energy from low-speed rotary motion. The challenge of a VREH at low rotational speeds is not only the low output power, but also the torque ripple that the harvester generates. Cogging torque, the major contribution to this torque ripple, is an inherent characteristic of VREH and is caused by its geometric features. Cogging torque produces acoustic noise and mechanical vibration for a drive system into which the VREH is embedded. This issue is of particular importance at low speeds and with light loads. In this paper, we use an m-shaped VREH as an example to propose a three-phase design in order to reduce the cogging torque but maintain a high output power at low speeds of 5 rpm to 20 rpm. Three identical m-shaped pickup units in a proper arrangement generate high amounts of electrical energy in three phases, but result in a lower torque ripple. Ten prototypes based on the proposed design were fabricated and tested, and their performance were in good agreement with the simulation results. By using the three pickup units in an optimized arrangement, the VREH enhances the energy harvesting performance in comparison to three single pickup units. At the same time, the torque ripple is reduced to one fifth of that produced by a single pickup unit. This demonstrates the strong potential of the three-phase VREH for implementations of self-powered wireless sensing systems in terms of energy output and mechanical effects on the rotary host. 

Keywords
energy harvesting, rotational energy, variable reluctance, cogging torque, torque ripple, sensor systems
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-44365 (URN)10.1016/j.ecmx.2022.100211 (DOI)000806627600003 ()2-s2.0-85126355480 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-02-20 Created: 2022-02-20 Last updated: 2022-08-01Bibliographically approved
5. Energy-autonomous On-rotor RPM Sensor Using Variable Reluctance Energy Harvesting
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-autonomous On-rotor RPM Sensor Using Variable Reluctance Energy Harvesting
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2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE 8th International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI), IEEE, 2019, p. 175-180, article id 08791251Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Energy-autonomous wireless sensor systems have the potential to enable condition monitoring without the need for a wired electrical infrastructure or capacity-limited batteries. In this paper, a robust and low-cost energy-autonomous wireless rotational speed sensor is presented, which harvests energy from the rotary motion of its host using the variable reluctance principle. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope is utilized for angular velocity measurements, and a Bluetooth Low Energy System-on-Chip (SoC) transmits the acquired samples wirelessly. An analysis on the individual subsystems is performed, investigating the output of the energy transducer, the required energy by the load, and energy losses in the whole system. The results of simulations and experimental measurements on a prototype implementation show that the system achieves energy-autonomous operation with sample rates between 1 to 50 Hz already at 10 to 40 rotations per minute. Detailed investigations of the system modules identify the power management having the largest potential for further improvements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Transducers, Energy harvesting, Wireless sensor networks, Sensor systems, Velocity control, Wireless communication, Wheels
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36839 (URN)10.1109/IWASI.2019.8791251 (DOI)000502733100040 ()2-s2.0-85071415267 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-0557-4 (ISBN)978-1-7281-0558-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 IEEE 8th International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI), Otranto, Italy, 13-14 June, 2019
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, ASIS 20140323Vinnova, 2017-03725
Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-08-13 Last updated: 2022-02-20Bibliographically approved
6. System Implementation Trade-Offs for Low-Speed Rotational Variable Reluctance Energy Harvesters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System Implementation Trade-Offs for Low-Speed Rotational Variable Reluctance Energy Harvesters
Show others...
2021 (English)In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 18, article id 6317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low-power energy harvesting has been demonstrated as a feasible alternative for the power supply of next-generation smart sensors and IoT end devices. In many cases, the output of kinetic energy harvesters is an alternating current (AC) requiring rectification in order to supply the electronic load. The rectifier design and selection can have a considerable influence on the energy harvesting system performance in terms of extracted output power and conversion losses. This paper presents a quantitative comparison of three passive rectifiers in a low-power, low-voltage electromagnetic energy harvesting sub-system, namely the full-wave bridge rectifier (FWR), the voltage doubler (VD), and the negative voltage converter rectifier (NVC). Based on a variable reluctance energy harvesting system, we investigate each of the rectifiers with respect to their performance and their effect on the overall energy extraction. We conduct experiments under the conditions of a low-speed rotational energy harvesting application with rotational speeds of 5rpm–20rpm, and verify the experiments in an end-to-end energy harvesting evaluation. Two performance metrics—power conversion efficiency (PCE) and power extraction efficiency (PEE)—are obtained from the measurements to evaluate the performance of the system implementation adopting each of the rectifiers. The results show that the FWR with PEEs of 20 % at 5 rpm to 40 % at 20 rpm has a low performance in comparison to the VD (40–60 %) and NVC (20–70 %) rectifiers. The VD-based interface circuit demonstrates the best performance under low rotational speeds, whereas the NVC outperforms the VD at higher speeds (>18 rpm). Finally, the end-to-end system evaluation is conducted with a self-powered rpm sensing system, which demonstrates an improved performance with the VD rectifier implementation reaching the system’s maximum sampling rate (40 Hz) at a rotational speed of approximately 15.5 rpm. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2021
Keywords
energy harvesting; rotational energy harvesting; kinetic energy harvesting; variable reluctance; self-powered sensors; internet of things; smart sensors
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-43123 (URN)10.3390/s21186317 (DOI)000701175100001 ()34577523 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85115190960 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, NIIT 20180170
Available from: 2021-09-21 Created: 2021-09-21 Last updated: 2022-06-20Bibliographically approved

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