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Effects of Pre-race Apneas on 400-m Freestyle Swimming Performance
School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom.
School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom.
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 828-837Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Robertson, C, Lodin-Sundström, A, O'Hara, J, King, R, Wainwright, B, and Barlow, M. Effects of pre-race apneas on 400-m freestyle swimming performance. J Strength Cond Res 34(3): 828–837, 2020—This study aimed to establish whether a series of 3 apneas before a 400-m freestyle time-trial affected swimming performance when compared with and combined with a warm-up. Nine (6 males and 3 females) regional to national standard swimmers completed four 400-m freestyle time-trials in 4 randomized conditions: without warm-up or apneas (CON), warm-up only (WU), apneas only (AP), and warm-up and apneas (WUAP). Time-trial performance was significantly improved after WUAP (275.79 ± 12.88 seconds) compared with CON (278.66 ± 13.31 seconds, p = 0.035) and AP (278.64 ± 4.10 seconds, p = 0.015). However, there were no significant differences between the WU (276.01 ± 13.52 seconds, p > 0.05) and other interventions. Spleen volume compared with baseline was significantly reduced after the apneas by a maximum of ∼45% in the WUAP and by ∼20% in WU. This study showed that the combination of a warm-up with apneas could significantly improve 400-m freestyle swim performance compared with a control and apnea intervention. Further investigation into whether long-term apnea training can enhance this response is justified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2020. Vol. 34, no 3, p. 828-837
Keywords [en]
breath holding, hypoxia, splenic contration, warm-up
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38608DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002711ISI: 000524363800027PubMedID: 29939897Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85079748775OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-38608DiVA, id: diva2:1413444
Available from: 2020-03-10 Created: 2020-03-10 Last updated: 2020-04-23Bibliographically approved

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