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Physiological Responses to Rifle Carriage During Roller-Skiing in Elite Biathletes
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1273-6061
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5574-8679
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 1519Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the physiological factors affected by rifle carriage during biathlon skiing performance, as well as the sex differences associated with rifle carriage.

Methods: Seventeen national- and international-level biathletes (nine females and eight males; age 23.0 ± 3.3 years, V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2max 59.4 ± 7.6 mL.kg–1.min–1) performed a submaximal incremental test and a maximal time-trial (TT) using treadmill roller-skiing (gear 3, skating technique) on two occasions separated by at least 48 h. One condition involved carrying the rifle on the back (WR) and the other condition no rifle (NR) and the tests were randomized. Submaximal V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2, skiing speed at 4 mmol.L–1 of blood lactate (speed@4mmol), gross efficiency (GE), aerobic (MRae), and anaerobic (MRan) metabolic rates, and V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2max were determined.

Results: Submaximal V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 (at all intensities) and GE (16.7 ± 0.9 vs. 16.5 ± 1.1%) were higher for WR compared to NR (p < 0.05), while speed@4mmol was lower (3.1 ± 0.4 vs. 3.3 ± 0.5 m.s–1, p = 0.040). TT performance was improved (4.6 ± 0.4 vs. 4.3 ± 0.4 m.s–1, p < 0.001) and MRan was higher (31.3 ± 8.0 vs. 27.5 ± 6.5 kJ.min–1, p < 0.01) for NR compared to WR, with no difference in V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2max or MRae. For skiing WR, TT performance was correlated to speed@4mmol (r = 0.81, p < 0.001), MRan (r = 0.65, p < 0.01), V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2max (r = 0.51, p < 0.05), and relative muscle (r = 0.67, p < 0.01) and fat (r = −0.67, p < 0.01) masses. Speed@4mmol together with MRan explained more than 80% of the variation in TT performance (WR 84%, NR 81%). Despite a higher relative mass of the rifle in females compared with males (5.6 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.4% of body mass, p = 0.012), there were no sex differences associated with rifle carriage measured as absolute or relative differences.

Conclusion: Rifle carriage in biathlon skiing led to significantly higher physiological demands during submaximal exercise and reduced performance during maximal treadmill roller-skiing compared to NR for both sexes. The most important variables for performance in biathlon treadmill skiing seem to be speed@4mmol combined with MRan, both of which were lower for WR compared to NR. To improve skiing performance in biathlon, improving speed at 4 mmol.L–1 of blood lactate and anaerobic energy delivery while carrying the rifle are recommended.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 10, article id 1519
Keywords [en]
anaerobic energy contribution, biathlon, cross-country skiing, gross efficiency, lactate threshold, oxygen uptake
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38148DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2019.01519ISI: 000505190700001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85077376480OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-38148DiVA, id: diva2:1380512
Available from: 2019-12-19 Created: 2019-12-19 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved

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Jonsson, MalinMcGawley, KerryLaaksonen, Marko

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