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Electroless deposition and silicidation of Ni contacts into p-type Porous Silicon
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Electronics design division)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Electronics design division)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Electronics design division)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3790-0729
2008 (English)In: Journal of porous materials, ISSN 1380-2224, Vol. 15, no 3, 335-341 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Porous Silicon (PS) has attracted much attention since the discovery of its photo luminescent behavior. It has also been used for various other applications such as electroluminescent light emitting-diodes (LEDs), photodetectors and solar cells. For such devices, it is important to make good metallic Ohmic contacts to the PS in order to maximize the efficiency. In order to produce buried contacts, barrier layers, Schottky devices, etc. in PS, it is advantageous to deposit metal that covers not only the surface of the porous layer, but also the inside walls and the bottom of the pores. In this work experiments were performed to examine the morphology and properties of electroless deposition of Nickel into p-type PS and subsequent formation of Nickel silicide after heat treatment. Circular PS samples of 6 mm diameter were produced by anodizing p-type Silicon wafers for 15 min and were subsequently plated with Ni using three different plating baths. The pores are on average 20 µm deep and 4 µm wide. Two samples of each type were heat treated in an nitrogen atmosphere for one hour at 400 and 600°C respectively to produce Nickel silicide. Reference samples were made by means of electron beam evaporation of Ni. SEM micrographs show that the best pore coverage was achieved using the Ni plating bath containing hypophosphite. I–V characterization shows that different rectifying and Ohmic contacts can be formed between electroless deposited Ni and PS depending on the conditions of the heat treatment. XRD and EDX characterizations show that both the NiSi and Ni2Si phases exist in the sample at the same time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 15, no 3, 335-341 p.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8335DOI: 10.1007/s10934-006-9090-2ISI: 000255114900014Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-42449142758OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-8335DiVA: diva2:134288
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2009-01-19 Created: 2009-01-19 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Position Sensitive Detectors: Device Technology and Applications in Spectroscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Position Sensitive Detectors: Device Technology and Applications in Spectroscopy
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with the development, processing and characterization of position sensitive detectors and, in addition, to the development of compact and cost effective spectrometers.

Position sensitive detectors are used to measure, with great accuracy and speed, the position of a light spot incident on the surface. Their main use is for triangulation, displacement and vibration measurements.

A type of position sensitive detector based on the MOS principle and using optically transparent indium tin oxide as a gate contact has been developed. This type of detector utilizes the MOS principle where an induced channel forms beneath the gate oxide in the surface of the Silicon substrate.

One and two dimensional detectors have both been fabricated and characterized. The first measurements showed that the linearity did not fulfil expectations and it was suspected that stress induced by the gate contact could be the reason for the seemingly high nonlinearity.

Further investigations into both the p-n junction and the MOS type position sensitive detectors lead to the conclusion that the indium tin oxide gate is responsible for inducing a substantial stress in the surface of the detector, thus giving rise to increased position nonlinearity. The heat treatment step which was conducted was determined to be critical as either a too short or too long heat treatment resulted in stress in the gate and channel leading to position nonlinearity. If a correctly timed heat treatment is performed then the detector’s linearity is in parity with the best commercial position sensitive detectors.

In addition, the development of very small, compact and cost effective spectrometers has been performed with the aim of constructing devices for use in the process industry. The development of a wedge shaped array of Fabry-Perot interferometers that can be mounted directly on top of a detector makes it possible to construct a very compact spectrometer using the minimum amount of optics. This wedge interferometer has been evaluated by means of array pixel detectors and position sensitive detectors for both the infrared and the visible wavelength ranges.

When used with a position sensitive detector it is necessary to use a slit to record the intensity of the interferogram for many points over the detector, equivalent to pixels on an array detector. Usually the use of moving parts in a spectrometer will impose the use of high precision scanning mechanisms and calibration. By using a position sensitive detector for the interferogram readout both the position and the intensity are known for every measurement point and thus the demands placed on the scanning system are minimized.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling behandlar utveckling, processning och karakterisering av positionskänsliga detektorer och även utveckling av kompakta, kostnadseffektiva spektrometrar.

Positionskänsliga detektorer används för att mäta positionen av en infallande ljuspunkt på ytan med hög noggrannhet och hastighet. Det huvudsakliga användningsområdet är triangulering, förskjutnings och vibrationsmätningar.

En typ av positionskänslig detektor baserad på MOS principen och som använder optiskt transparent indium-tenn-oxid som ”gate” kontakt har utvecklats och karakteriserats. Denna typ av detektor utnyttjar MOS principen där en inducerad kanal bildas under ”gate” oxiden i ytan på kiselsubstratet.

Både en endimensionell och en tvådimensionell detektor har tillverkats och karakteriserats. De första mätningarna visade på att linjäriteten inte var den förväntade och det misstänktes att stress inducerad av ”gate” kontakten kunde vara orsaken till den tillsynes för höga ickelinjäriteten.

Ytterligare undersökning på både p-n och MOS positionskänsliga detektorer ledde till slutsatsen att indium-tenn-oxid ”gate” kontakten är ansvarig för att orsaka en väsentlig stress i ytan på detektorn och därigenom orsaka ökad olinjäritet i positionsbestämningen. Värmebehandlingssteget som utförs fastställdes vara kritiskt där en för kort eller för lång värmebehandling resulterar i stress i ”gate” kontakten och kanalen som leder till olinjäritet. Om en korrekt värmebehandling utförs så är de tillverkade detektorernas linjäritet i paritet med de bästa kommersiella positionskänsliga detektorerna.

Utveckling av väldigt små, kompakta och kostnadseffektiva spektrometrar har också utförts med målet att konstruera enheter för användning i process industrin. Utvecklingen av en kilformad ”array” av Fabry-Perot interferometrar som kan monteras direkt på en detektor gör det möjligt att konstruera en väldigt kompakt spektrometer med minimalt med optik. Denna kilformade interferometer har utvärderats med arraydetektorer, både för det infraröda och det synliga våglängdsområdet, och också med positionskänsliga detektorer.

När den används med en positionskänslig detektor så är det nödvändigt att använda en springa att begränsa ljuset med för att registrera intensiteten av interferrogrammet i många punkter över detektorn, vilket är likvärdigt med pixlar på en arraydetektor. Vanligtvis gör användandet av rörliga delar i en spektrometer att mekanismer med hög precision och kalibrering måste användas. Genom att använda en positionskänslig detektor för att läsa ut interferrogrammet så kommer både positionen såväl som ljusintensiteten att vara känd i varje mätpunkt och därför minimeras kravet på förflyttningsmekanismen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier, 2008
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 48
Keyword
Position sensitive detectors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-202 (URN)978-91-85317-91-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-15, O102, O, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-04-16 Created: 2008-04-16 Last updated: 2009-01-19Bibliographically approved
2. Development of Process Technology for Photon Radiation Measurement Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Process Technology for Photon Radiation Measurement Applications
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents work related to new types of photo detectors and their applications. The focus has been on the development of process technology and methods by means of experimentation and measurements. The overall aim has been to develop and improve photon radiation measurement applications which are possible to manufacture using standard Si processing technology.

A new type of position sensitive detector that has switching possibilities based on the MOS principle has been fabricated and characterized. The influence of mechanical stress on the linearity of position sensitive detectors has been investigated. The results show that mechanical stress arising, for example, by the mounting of detectors in capsules can have an impact on device performance. Under normal circumstances these effects are rather small, but are considered to be worthwhile taking into account.

Electroless deposition of Nickel including various dopants in porous silicon was performed to manufacture electrical contacts for this interesting material. After heat treatment it was confirmed by X-ray diffraction that Nickel silicide had been formed and I-V measurements show that different contacts exhibit Ohmic and rectifying behaviour.

Spectrometers are used extensively in the process and food industry to measure both the chemical content and the amount of substances used during manufacturing. These instruments are often rather bulky and costly, though the trend is towards smaller and more portable equipment. A spectrometer based on an array of Fabry-Perot interferometers mounted close to an array detector is shown to be a viable option for the manufacture of a very compact device. Such a device has minimal intermediate optics and it may be possible, in the future, for it to be developed and completely integrated with a detector array into a single unit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet, 2007. 42 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 16
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9334 (URN)91-85317-32-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
(English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-07-10 Created: 2009-07-10 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved

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Andersson, HenrikThungström, GöranNilsson, Hans-Erik

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