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Simulating Behavioral Level On-Chip Noise Coupling
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion, STC)
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, noise coupling simulation is introduced into the behavioral level. Methods andmodels for simulating on-chip noise coupling at the behavioral level in a design flow are presentedand verified for accuracy and validity. Today, designs of electronic systems are becoming denserand more and more mixed-signal systems such as System-on-Chip (SoC) are being devised. Thisraises problems when the electronics components start to interfere with each other. Often, digitalcomponents disturb analog components, introducing noise into the system causing degradation ofthe performance or even introducing errors into the functionality of the system.Today, these effects can only be simulated at a very late stage in the design process, causinglarge design iterations and increased costs if the designers are required to return and makealterations, which may have occurred at a very early stage in the process.This is why the focus of this work is centered on extracting noise coupling simulation modelsthat can be used at a very early design stage, such as at the behavioral level and then follow thedesign through the various design stages. To achieve this, SystemC is selected as a platform andimplementation example for the behavioral level models. SystemC supports design refinement,which means that when designs are being refined and are crossing the design levels, the noisecoupling models can also be refined to suit the current design.This new method of thinking in primarily mixed-signal designs is called Behavioral levelNoise Coupling (BeNoC) simulation and shows great promise in enabling a reduction in the costsof design iterations due to component cross-talk and simplifies the work for mixed-signal systemdesigners.

Abstract [sv]

I denna avhandling introduceras brussimulering i mikrochip på en beteendenivå. Metoderoch modeller för brussimulering i chip presenteras och verifieras för noggrannhet och funktionalitetpå en beteendenivå i designflödet. I dagsläget blir elektroniska system tätare och tätare på chippenoch fler och fler system görs med både analog och digital elektronik såsom System-on-Chip (SoC).Detta skapar problem när komponenter börjar störa varandra. Oftast är det digitala komponentersom stör de analoga, vilket introducerar brus i systemet som reducerar prestanda eller till och medinför fel i funktionen hos systemet.Idag kan dessa effekter simuleras i ett mycket sent skede i designflödet, betyder att om felupptäcks måste designern kanske gå tillbaka många steg i flödet. Detta kostar mycket tid ochpengar.Därför ligger fokus i detta arbete på att extrahera brussimuleringsmodeller som kananvändas i ett tidigt skede såsom på beteendenivå och sedan följa designen genom senare skeden idesignflödet. För att realisera detta har SystemC valts som en plattform och som ettimplementationsexempel för beteendenivåmodellerna. SystemC har stöd för förfining av designervilket betyder att ett system kan börja beskrivas på en hög nivå för att sedan förfinas för att nå lägrenivåer. Detta gör det möjligt för brusmodellerna att också förfinas i takt med systemdesignen.Detta nya sätt att tänka på i designprocessen av i huvudsak analog/digital-integreradesystem kallas Behavioral level Noise Coupling (BeNoC) simulering och bådar gott för att reducerakostnader för designiterationer på grund av brus mellan komponenter, och gör arbetet enklare föranalog/digital- (mixed-signal) designers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2007. , 151 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 25
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8057ISBN: 978-91-85317-54-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-8057DiVA: diva2:133101
Public defence
2007-05-30, O102, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-01-12 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2011-02-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Evaluation of Mixed-Signal Noise Effects in Photon Counting X-Ray Image Sensor Readout Circuits
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Mixed-Signal Noise Effects in Photon Counting X-Ray Image Sensor Readout Circuits
2006 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 563, no 1, 88-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In readout electronics for photon counting pixel detectors, the tight integration between analog and digital blocks causes the readout electronics to be sensitive to on-chip noise coupling. This noise coupling can result in faulty luminance values in grayscale X-ray images, or as color distortions in a color X-ray imaging system. An exploration of simulating noise coupling in readout circuits is presented which enables the discovery of sensitive blocks at as early a stage as possible, in order to avoid costly design iterations. The photon counting readout system has been simulated for noise coupling in order to highlight the existing problems of noise coupling in X-ray imaging systems. The simulation results suggest that on-chip noise coupling should be considered and simulated in future readout electronics systems for X-ray detectors.

Keyword
Photon Counting, Pixel Detector, Noise Effects, Evaluation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3433 (URN)10.1016/j.nima.2006.01.098 (DOI)000238764700022 ()2-s2.0-33745000546 (Scopus ID)3432 (Local ID)3432 (Archive number)3432 (OAI)
Conference
7th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Jul 04-07, 2005, Grenoble, France
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Note

7th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Jul 04-07, 2005, Grenoble, France

Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2016-09-28Bibliographically approved
2. A SystemC Extension for Behavioral Level Quantification of Noise-Coupling in Mixed-Signal Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A SystemC Extension for Behavioral Level Quantification of Noise-Coupling in Mixed-Signal Systems
2003 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2003 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL III - GENERAL & NONLINEAR CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS Vol 3, IEEE , 2003, , 898-901 p.898-901 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present a method, based on SystemC, for quantification of noise coupling in mixed-signal systems, called BeNoC. Presented method facilitates seamless quantification of both power-line and substrate noise coupling at behavioral level. The main contribution of this approach is the integration of noise coupling simulation with behavioral functional simulation. Starting from a behavioral model of the system, captured in SystemC, we add wrappers to each block in the behavioral model. These wrappers add an estimated power consumption model for each block, which is triggered by events in the behavioral simulation. The noise coupling simulation is then done by connecting the different blocks according to a virtual layout and technology parameters. The resulting noisy substrate or noisy power-line can then be fed back into the behavioral model. Thus, effects on the system behavior can be analyzed. In this paper we focus on noise coupling over the power-supply network and demonstrating the usability of noise coupling simulation technique. The simulation results are compared with SPICE simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2003. 898-901 p.
Keyword
Mixed-signal, noise coupling
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1649 (URN)000184781800226 ()2-s2.0-0038420825 (Scopus ID)270 (Local ID)0-7803-7761-3 (ISBN)270 (Archive number)270 (OAI)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, May 25-28, 2003, Bangkok, Thailand
Available from: 2008-12-16 Created: 2008-12-16 Last updated: 2016-10-27Bibliographically approved
3. Behavioral Simulation of Power Line Noise Coupling in Mixed-Signal Systems using SystemC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behavioral Simulation of Power Line Noise Coupling in Mixed-Signal Systems using SystemC
Show others...
2003 (English)In: ISVLSI 2003: IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI, PROCEEDINGS - NEW TRENDS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR VLSI SYSTEMS DESIGN, IEEE , 2003, 275-277 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents methods for early quantification of digital to analog noise coupling at behavioral level. The methods enable designers to both verify the behavior of their mixed-signal architecture and its sensitivity to noise coupling. The high-level noise coupling simulation models are implemented as extensions to SystemC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2003
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8053 (URN)000181626500054 ()0-7695-1904-0 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE-Computer-Society Annual Symposium on VLSI, Feb 20-21, 2003, Tampa, FL
Available from: 2009-01-07 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2011-04-19Bibliographically approved
4. A power-line noise coupling estimation methodology for architectural exploration of mixed-signal systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A power-line noise coupling estimation methodology for architectural exploration of mixed-signal systems
Show others...
2003 (English)In: Proceedings of the Southwest Symposium on Mixed-Signa Design, IEEE Press, 2003, 133-137 p., 1190412Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents methods for early estimation of digital to analog noise coupling over the power distribution network in mixed-signal systems. The methods allow both behavioral verification of mixed-signal architectures and their sensitivity to noise coupling of the power distribution network. The behavioral level noise coupling simulation models are implemented as extensions to the SystemC system design language. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, we have estimated the power distribution network noise for a photon-counting X-ray pixel array and compared this with SPICE simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2003
Keyword
Noise Coupling, Power Distribution Networks, SystemC
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1655 (URN)10.1109/SSMSD.2003.1190412 (DOI)000181754900027 ()2-s2.0-84942518357 (Scopus ID)277 (Local ID)0-7803-7778-8 (ISBN)277 (Archive number)277 (OAI)
Conference
Southwest Symposium on Mixed-Signal Design, Feb 23-25, 2003, Las Vegas, NV
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2016-09-21Bibliographically approved
5. Substrate Noise Coupling models for Behavioral Mixed-Signal Simulation in SystemC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Substrate Noise Coupling models for Behavioral Mixed-Signal Simulation in SystemC
2004 (English)In: Proceedings. 4th IEEE International Workshop on System-on-Chip for Real-Time Applications, (IWSOC'04), 2004, 2004, 201-205 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present methods and models to simulate substrate noise coupling at the behavioral level. The models are implemented as a part of the SystemC based Behavioral level Noise Coupling (BeNoC) simulation application. The application is designed as a wrapper to SystemC component modules, enabling designers to simulate substrate noise coupling in their modules during the entire circuit refinement process. This is enabled through the two main contributions presented in this paper: (1) methods to connect the behavioral level with low level circuit simulations and (2) generation of a fast and accurate circuit model for substrate coupling simulations. The accuracy of the generated substrate noise coupling model is verified against device simulations. The same verification test case is used to demonstrate the connection between behavioral simulations and circuit simulations.

Keyword
Substrate noise, models, Behavioral, Noise Coupling
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3367 (URN)10.1109/IWSOC.2004.1319878 (DOI)3338 (Local ID)3338 (Archive number)3338 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30Bibliographically approved
6. Simplified Gate Level Noise Injection Models for Behavioral Noise Coupling Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simplified Gate Level Noise Injection Models for Behavioral Noise Coupling Simulation
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2005 European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design: 28 Aug.-2 Sept. 2005, Cork, Ireland, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, Vol. 3, 345-348 p., 1523131Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In CMOS digital logic, there are two major noise sources requiring consideration. These are a circuit´s power supply current and its noise current injected into the substrate of the circuit. This paper proposes a method for modeling and estimating the noise current injected into the substrate by capacitive coupling in digital circuits. The simplicity of the model and the reduction of details in the technology libraries facilitates behavioral level noise coupling simulation. The model is exemplified and evaluated for a simple NOT gate test case, for which the accuracy and simplicity of the models show great promise for simulation at the behavioral level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005
Keyword
Injection models, Behavioral, Noise Coupling
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3366 (URN)10.1109/ECCTD.2005.1523131 (DOI)2-s2.0-33749034204 (Scopus ID)3337 (Local ID)0780390660 (ISBN)978-078039066-9 (ISBN)3337 (Archive number)3337 (OAI)
Conference
2005 European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design; Cork; Ireland; 28 August 2005 through 2 September 2005
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2016-09-29Bibliographically approved
7. Simulating behavioral level on-chip noise coupling using systemC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulating behavioral level on-chip noise coupling using systemC
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8184 (URN)
Note
submitted to: Integration(ISSN 0167-9260)Available from: 2009-01-12 Created: 2009-01-12 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
8. Power Distribution and Substrate Noise Coupling Investigations on the Behavioral Level for Photon Counting Imaging Readout Circuits
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Power Distribution and Substrate Noise Coupling Investigations on the Behavioral Level for Photon Counting Imaging Readout Circuits
2007 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 576, no 1, 113-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In modern mixed-signal system design, there are increasing problems associated with noise coupling caused by switching digital parts to sensitive analog parts. As a consequence, there is a growing necessity to understand these problems. In order to avoid costly design iterations, noise coupling simulations should be initiated as early as possible in the design chain. The problems associated with on-chip noise coupling have been discovered in photon counting pixel detector readout systems, where the level of integration of analog and digital circuits is very high on a very small area, and it would appear that these problems will continue to increase for future system designs in this field. This paper deals with the functionality of utilizing behavioral level models for simulating noise coupling in these readout systems. The methods and models are described and simulation results are shown for a photon counting pixel detector readout system.

Keyword
Noise Coupling, Photon Counting, Methodology, Simulation, Mixed-Signal
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4063 (URN)10.1016/j.nima.2007.01.132 (DOI)000247330000027 ()2-s2.0-34248188717 (Scopus ID)4573 (Local ID)4573 (Archive number)4573 (OAI)
Conference
8th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Jul 02-06, 2006, Pisa, Italy
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Note

8th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Jul 02-06, 2006, Pisa, Italy

Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-07-29 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved

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