miun.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Sex differences in performance and pacing strategies during sprint skiing
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4433-1218
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. (Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6224-0454
Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1273-6061
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This study aimed to compare performance and pacing strategies between elite male and female cross-country skiers during a sprint competition on snow using the skating technique.

Methods: Twenty male and 14 female skiers completed an individual time-trial prolog (TT) and three head-to-head races (quarter, semi, and final) on the same 1,572-m course, which was divided into flat, uphill and downhill sections. Section-specific speeds, choice of sub-technique (i.e., gear), cycle characteristics, heart rate and post-race blood lactate concentration were monitored. Power output was estimated for the different sections during the TT, while metabolic demand was estimated for two uphill camera sections and the final 50-m flat camera section.

Results: Average speed during the four races was ∼12.5% faster for males than females (P < 0.001), while speeds on the flat, uphill and downhill sections were ∼11, 18, and 9% faster for the males than females (all P< 0.001 for terrain, sex, and interaction). Differences in uphill TT speed between the sexes were associated with different sub-technique preferences, with males using a higher gear more frequently than females (P < 0.05). The estimated metabolic demand relative to maximal oxygen uptake (V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2max) was similar for both sexes during the two uphill camera sections (∼129% of V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2max) and for the final 50-m flat section (∼153% of V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2max). Relative power output during the TT was 18% higher for males compared to females (P < 0.001) and was highly variable along the course for both sexes (coefficient of variation [CV] between sections 4–9 was 53%), while the same variation in heart rate was low (CV was ∼3%). The head-to-head races were ∼2.4% faster than the TT for both sexes and most race winners (61%) were positioned first already after 30 m of the race. No sex differences were observed during any of the races for heart rate or blood lactate concentration.

Conclusion: The average sex difference in sprint skiing performance was ∼12.5%, with varying differences for terrain-specific speeds. Moreover, females skied relatively slower uphill (at a lower gear) and thereby elicited more variation in their speed profiles compared to the males.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 10, article id 295
Keywords [en]
Cross-country skiing, elite athletes, head-to-head, metabolic demand, power output, time-trial
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35839DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00295ISI: 000462046900001PubMedID: 30967794OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-35839DiVA, id: diva2:1298446
Available from: 2019-03-22 Created: 2019-03-22 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Andersson et al 2019 - Sex differences...(1177 kB)131 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1177 kBChecksum SHA-512
e4fa5614dc5c98f47de6d472e743ca6cc1750810cf5166de8069f911afcb68861e8260f65d00b5c1910e0e459a6f46c58d4696d6c81717393d3147c203df5cda
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Authority records BETA

Andersson, ErikGovus, AndrewMcGawley, Kerry

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Andersson, ErikGovus, AndrewMcGawley, Kerry
By organisation
Department of Health Sciences
In the same journal
Frontiers in Physiology
Natural Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 131 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 150 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf