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The occurrence and nature of early signs of schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders among former child and adolescent psychiatric patients followed into adulthood
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7740-9910
Karolinska Institutet, institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
2008 (English)In: Child and Adolescent Mental Health, ISSN 1475-357X, E-ISSN 1475-3588, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 30-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

This investigation was designed to characterize psychotic disorders among patients originally treated as in- and outpatients by child and adolescent psychiatric services and subsequently followed-up into mid-adulthood. The age at the first onset on symptoms, possible changes in diagnoses, early signs noted prior to or upon admission to child and adolescent psychiatric care and possible differences between patients with early- and later- onset disorder were of particular interest.

Methods

The study population consisted of patients (285 in- and 1115 outpatients) born between 1957 and 1976 and admitted to and treated by child and adolescent psychiatric care units in Jämtland County, Sweden, between 1975 and 1990. The status of their mental health was monitored until 2003 using official registries and hospital records. Diagnoses based on the ICD-8 and -9 systems, which were used in Sweden from 1968-1997, converted to diagnoses according to ICD-10, which has been in use since 1997. The Comprehensive Assessment of at Risk Mental States was employed to assess the information concerning psychopathology provided by the hospital records.

Results

By the end of the follow-up period 62 former child and adolescent psychiatric patients (36 females and 26 males), 4.4% of the entire study group, had received an ICD-10 diagnosis of "F20-29: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" (48) and/or "F30-39: Psychotic mood disorders" (14). One-third (21) of these individuals were given their initial diagnosis of psychosis in connection with child and adolescent psychiatric care. Two of these 21 were not treated later for this disorder in general (adult) psychiatric care whereas the remaining 19 individuals were diagnosed for the same type of disorder as adults. The other 41 patients were diagnosed as psychotic only in connection with general (adult) psychiatric care. The mean age at the time of first onset of symptoms was 21.4 years (SD 6.4) and corresponding median age was 18. Behavioural changes and positive symptoms were the most frequent signs associated with a diagnosis of "F20-F29: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" made during child and adolescent psychiatric care. In cases where a specific psychopathology developed later on the initial admission to child and adolescent psychiatry involved unspecified psychopathology.

Conclusions

In summary, it appears that psychotic disorders are relatively uncommon among patients admitted to child and adolescent psychiatric care in Sweden. However, individuals experiencing early onset of disorders categorized as "F20-29: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" may already exhibit typical symptoms upon admission to child and adolescent psychiatric care of the age of 13-17; whereas late-onset disorders it appear not be associated with any obvious signs or symptoms years before the disorder has developed fully. Finally, certain cases of psychotic disorder during adolescence seem to have been episodic.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
England: BioMed Central Ltd , 2008. Vol. 2, no 1, p. 30-
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-7138DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-2-30PubMedID: 18928534Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-56449124257OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-7138DiVA, id: diva2:126808
Available from: 2008-12-04 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Suicides, psychotic disorders and criminality among former child and adolescent psychiatric patients followed into adulthood
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suicides, psychotic disorders and criminality among former child and adolescent psychiatric patients followed into adulthood
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim was to provide information about child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP) patients and their outcome as adults: Were their difficulties in childhood due to mental illness, disablement and/or behaviour disorders? What happened to them as adults? Who were the patients in need of psychiatric care (GenP) in adulthood that had not had previous contact with CAP? Did this group differ from the former CAP group? Methods: Paper I-III: 1,400 CAP patients admitted 1975-1990 to inpatient or outpatient CAP care in Jämtland County, Sweden were followed until 2003. Paper IV: A sample of 167 GenP patients not treated in CAP was compared to GenP patients with a history of CAP care. Hospital records at CAP were reassessed according to a study specific protocol. Outcome was measured in relation to register data on mortality, suicides, psychiatric/somatic care, and criminal convictions. CAP records were examined for those treated for psychosis either at CAP and or in GenP. Results: Every third CAP patient has later received GenP care. They constituted a small part of the GenP patients in the same age-groups. The CAP patients showed an elevated rate of early death. Two of the 19 who later committed suicide had been initially admitted because of attempted suicide. Every third CAP patient had a criminal record. Over the past 50 years, the percentage of Swedish boys admitted to CAP care and later registered as criminals seems to have doubled while the corresponding percentage for girls has increased almost seven times. Behavioural disorders as a reason for CAP care were the most substantial risk factor for later criminality. Sixty-two former CAP patients (4.4%) received a psychosis diagnosis during the observation time 48 of them within the Schizophrenia categories and 14 with Psychotic Mood Disorder. Mean age at first onset was 21.4 years. Changes in behaviour, including social isolation, refusal to go to school, loneliness and odd behaviour in general were the initial signs and symptoms most frequently observed prior or upon admission to CAP-care. The GenP patients with and without a previous history in CAP care had similar problems as adults. Both groups had a larger need of somatic hospital inpatient-care before the age of 18 years when compared to the general population. More than a third of the treatment occasions occurred in paediatric care. Conclusions: Psychosocial risk factors and social maladjustment in childhood seem to be the most important predictors of early death, including suicide. The increased risk of later criminality is hypothetically the result of rising alcohol consumption in Sweden, the comorbid use of illegal drugs, and changes in the organization of child social welfare work, the school system, and CAP methods that has occurred since 1970. Patients with onset of schizophrenia before 13-17 years of age showed typical symptoms upon admission to CAP care; while late-onset psychosis among former CAP could not be predicted from information gathered during CAP care. There is a group of patients treated in paediatrics and in CAP during childhood and adolescence before becoming later patients in GenP. These patients can most likely be identified during childhood if a closer collaboration is developed between paediatrics and CAP services. Hypothetically, the need of GenP care as adults in the larger group of GenP patients without a previous CAP history may develop from accumulated stressful life-events.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Karolinska institutet, 2009
Keywords
Psychiatry, child, adolescent, adult, mortality, suicide, crime, mental disorders, psychotic disorders, paediatrics, longitudinal studies
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9118 (URN)978-91-7409-519-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-06-12, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-06-08 Created: 2009-06-08 Last updated: 2009-06-08Bibliographically approved

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