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Protein synthesis signaling in skeletal muscle is refractory to whey protein ingestion during a severe energy deficit evoked by prolonged exercise and caloric restriction
University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain.
University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 872-882Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Exercise and protein ingestion preserve muscle mass during moderate energy deficits. Objective: To determine the molecular mechanisms by which exercise and protein ingestion may spare muscle mass during severe energy deficit (5500 kcal/day).

Design: Fifteen overweight, but otherwise healthy men, underwent a pre-test (PRE), caloric restriction (3.2 kcals/kg body weight/day) + exercise (45 min one-arm cranking + 8 h walking) for 4 days (CRE), followed by a control diet (CD) for 3 days, with a caloric content similar to pre-intervention while exercise was reduced to less than 10,000 steps per day. During CRE, participants ingested either whey protein (PRO, n = 8) or sucrose (SU, n = 7) (0.8 g/kg body weight/day). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the trained and untrained deltoid, and vastus lateralis.

Results: Following CRE and CD, serum concentrations of leptin, insulin, and testosterone were reduced, whereas cortisol and the catabolic index (cortisol/total testosterone) increased. The Akt/mTor/p70S6K pathway and total eIF2α were unchanged, while total 4E-BP1 and Thr37/464E-BP1 were higher. After CRE, plasma BCAA and EAA were elevated, with a greater response in PRO group, and total GSK3β, pSer9GSK3β, pSer51eIF2α, and pSer51eIF2α/total eIF2α were reduced, with a greater response of pSer9GSK3β in the PRO group. The changes in signaling were associated with the changes in leptin, insulin, amino acids, cortisol, cortisol/total testosterone, and lean mass.

Conclusions: During severe energy deficit, pSer9GSK3β levels are reduced and human skeletal muscle becomes refractory to the anabolic effects of whey protein ingestion, regardless of contractile activity. These effects are associated with the changes in lean mass and serum insulin, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 43, no 4, p. 872-882
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35045DOI: 10.1038/s41366-018-0174-2ISI: 000462994400025PubMedID: 30242237Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85053695498OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-35045DiVA, id: diva2:1268051
Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-12-04 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved

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Holmberg, Hans-Christer

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