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Evaluation of a CO2 sensitive thermopile with an integrated multilayered infrared absorber by using a long path length NDIR platform
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
Research and Development Department, SenseAir AB, Delsbo.
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2018 (English)In: I2MTC 2018 - 2018 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference: Discovering New Horizons in Instrumentation and Measurement, Proceedings, IEEE, 2018, p. 1-6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work, a mid-infrared-sensitive thermopile detector was evaluated for carbon dioxide gas. The thermopile has an integrated absorber structure that has more than 95% absorption for the wavelength range of 3.3-5.5 μm. For the measurement of carbon dioxide, the detector was initially assembled on a small printed circuit board holder and then installed in a long path length non-dispersive infrared platform. The measurement setup was calibrated by exposing the detector to carbon dioxide of known concentrations (from 50 ppm to 1,300 ppm) and measuring the corresponding voltage response of the detector. The measured voltage values allowed us to calculate the calibration constant for this detector. This was followed by a verification process using a concentration of 500 ppm (which was not used in the calibration) and a known value of 1,300 ppm. The verification results matched with real values, demonstrating that the sensor can be used for highly sensitive and accurate carbon dioxide measurements at concentrations from a few ppm level up to 1,300 ppm. Above this level, additional calibration is needed. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018. p. 1-6
Keywords [en]
Carbon dioxide gas measurement, LPL-NDIR sensor, Thermopile detector
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34564DOI: 10.1109/I2MTC.2018.8409758Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85050722432ISBN: 9781538622223 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-34564DiVA, id: diva2:1252318
Conference
2018 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, I2MTC 2018, Houston, United States, 14 May 2018 through 17 May 2018
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Thermal detector with integrated absorber structure for mid-IR gas detection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal detector with integrated absorber structure for mid-IR gas detection
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Measurement of the concentration of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide(CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ), in the atmosphere has received significant attention in the last few decades. This work focusses on the development of high-performance thermopile detectors for use with the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) measurements of such gases. The performance of the thermopile detectors could effectively be increased by selecting membrane materials with a low thermal conductivity value and an efficient infrared (IR) absorbing material and by selecting the materials with high Seebeck coefficient values. Graphite black paint can be used as a radiation absorber, as it has high absorption (80—93%) for a wide spectral range (2.5 μm — 20 μm). By using spray paint or a paint brush, the application of the absorber is simple and fast. However, the control over the processing process suffers with these simple methods. The thermal capacitance of the detector will rapidly increase due to uneven distribution and unknown thickness of the absorber, although the response of the thermopile detector will be maximum due to high absorption; however, the response time (τ th )for the detector will be longer.In order to improve the performance, IR absorbers have been designed to utilise the membrane (SU-8 epoxy) of the detector as an active part of the IR absorber. This utilisation of the SU-8 epoxy membrane will result in a maximum detector sensitivity and a minimum increase in both the thermal capacitance and thermal conductance of the thermopile detector. Absorber structures, based on SU-8 epoxy, with a narrow absorption band at 4.26 µm and a wider multi-layered absorption band at 3-6 µm, were designed, simulated, and fabricated, and their integration into the membrane of thermopile detectors have been presented. The response of the thermopile detector could also be increased by using materials with high Seebeck coefficient [1] values such as semiconductor materials, as they have higher Seebeckvalues compared to the metals. In the thesis, molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) flakes were characterised, and Seebeck values were estimated through a measurement setup as a function of temperature difference (ΔT). The fabricated thermopile detectors were characterised, and the response time(τ th ) of a thermocouple with a multi-layered absorber structure has been estimated to be 21 ms. The detector has shown high responsivity value in the wavelength range of 3 µm – 4.5 µm, which is used for CO 2 and CH 4 detection. The thermopile detector was evaluated for CO 2 gas through a long-path-length NDIR platform. The results show that the evaluated thermopile could be used for the measurement of gas concentration down to levels of a few parts per million (ppm) by using the long-path-length NDIR platform.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2018. p. 81
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 280
Keywords
Thermal detectors, Thermopile detectors, Infrared absorbers, SU-8 epoxy, Interferometric and Multi-layered absorber, Seebeck coefficient, Molybdenum di-sulfide
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34616 (URN)978-91-88527-48-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-21, L111, Sundsvall, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Personal Email to Author

shakeel.llm@gmail.com

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 5 (inskickat), delarbete 7 (manuskript).

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 5 (submitted), paper 7 (manuscript).

Available from: 2018-10-15 Created: 2018-10-15 Last updated: 2018-10-15Bibliographically approved

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Ashraf, ShakeelMattsson, ClaesThungström, Göran

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