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Blood lactate accumulation during competitive freediving and synchronized swimming
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Norwegian Heart & Lung Patient Org, Norway.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
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2018 (English)In: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, ISSN 1066-2936, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A number of competitive water sports are performed while breath-holding (apnea). Such performances put large demands on the anaerobic system, but the study of lactate accumulation in apneic sports is limited. We therefore aimed to determine and compare the net lactate accumulation (NLA) during competition events in six disciplines of competitive freediving (FD) and three disciplines of synchronized swimming (SSW). The FD disciplines were: static apnea (STA; n = 14) dynamic apnea (DYN; n = 19) dynamic apnea no fins (DNF; n = 16) constant weight (CWT; n = 12) constant weight no fins (CNF; n = 8) free immersion (FIM; n =10) The SSW disciplines were solo (n = 21), duet (n = 31) and team (n = 34). Capillary blood lactate concentration was measured before and three minutes after competition performances, and apneic duration and performance variables were recorded. In all nine disciplines NLA was observed. The highest mean (SD) NLA (mmol.L-1) was found in CNF at 6.3 (2.2), followed by CWT at 5.9 (2.3) and SSW solo at 5 (1.9). STA showed the lowest NLA 0.7 (0.7) mmol.L-1 compared to all other disciplines (P < 0.001). The NLA recorded shows that sports involving apnea involve high levels of anaerobic activity. The highest NLA was related to both work done by large muscle groups and long apneic periods, suggesting that NLA is influenced by both the type of work and apnea duration, with lower NLA in SSW due to shorter apneic episodes with intermittent breathing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 45, no 1, p. 55-63
Keyword [en]
apnea, anaerobic, breath-hold diving, exercise, hypoxia, underwater, sports
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33680ISI: 000431654400008PubMedID: 29571233OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-33680DiVA, id: diva2:1211571
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved

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Rodríguez-Zamora, LaraEngan, Harald K.Lodin-Sundström, AngelicaSchagatay, FannySchagatay, Erika

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Rodríguez-Zamora, LaraEngan, Harald K.Lodin-Sundström, AngelicaSchagatay, FannySchagatay, Erika
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Department of Health SciencesDepartment of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering
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Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine
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