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Characterization of Low Cost Printed Sensors for Smart Packaging
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (STC)
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Currently there are very significant interests in printed electronics in the world. The possibility to produce electronics in a roll to roll printing process will considerably reduce the cost of the electronic devices. However, these new devices will most probably not replace the traditional silicon based electronics, but will be a complement in low cost applications such as in intelligent packages and other printable media. One interesting area is printable low cost sensors that add value to packages. In this thesis a study of the performance of low cost sensors is presented. The sensors were fabricated using commercial printing processes used in the graphical printing business. The sensors were characterized and evaluated for the intended application. The evaluated sensors were moisture sensing sensor solutions and touch sensitive sensor solutions.

A printable touch sensitive sensor solution is presented where the sensor is incorporated into a high quality image such as in point of sales displays. The sensor solution showed good touch sensitivity at a variety of humidity levels. Four printed moisture sensor concepts are presented and characterized. Firstly, a moisture sensor that shows good correlation to the moisture content of cellulose based substrates. Secondly, a sensor that measures the relative humidity in the air, the sensor has a measuring accuracy of 0.22% at high relative humidity levels. Thirdly, a moisture sensor that utilizes unsintered silver nano-particles to measure the relative humidity in the air, the sensor has a linear response at very low relative humidity levels. And fourth, an action activated energy cell that provides power when activated by moisture. A concept of remote moisture sensing that utilizes ordinary low cost RFID tags has also been presented and characterized. The remote sensor solution works both with passive and semi-passive RFID systems. The study shows that it is possible to manufacture low cost sensors in commercial printing processes.

Abstract [sv]

Det är för närvarande ett stort intresse för tryckt elektronik. Att kunna tillverka elektroniska komponenter i en rulle till rulle process möjliggör en reducering av tillverkningskostnaden. Dessa nya komponenter kommer sannolikt inte konkurrera ut den traditionella kiselbaserade elektroniken utan kommer att kunna komplimentera kiselelektronik i segment där kostnaden är väldigt viktig som i intelligenta förpackningar och andra tryckta medier. Ett intressant område är tryckta sensorer som kan addera värde till förpackningar. I denna avhandling presenteras en studie kring tryckta sensorer som kan tillverkas till låg kostnad. Sensorerna är tillverkade i kommersiella grafiska tryckpressar. Sensorerna karakteriseras och utvärderas för de applikationer som de är tänkta för. I denna avhandling har fuktsensorer och beröringskänsliga sensorer undersökts.

Det presenteras en tryckt beröringskänslig sensor som integreras i ett högkvalitativt grafiskt tryck. Denna sensor är tänkt att användas i reklamskyltar för att skapa interaktivitet. Sensorn har en bra känslighet vid varierande fukthalter. Även fyra fuktsensorer presenteras och utvärderas. Den första sensorn mäter fukthalten i cellulosabaserade substrat och visar en bra korrelation till fukthalten i substratet. Den andra sensorn mäter den relativa fukten i luften, denna sensor har en mätnoggrannhet på 0.22% för höga fukthalter. Den tredje sensorn använder partiklar i nanostorlek för att mäta fukthalten i luften. Denna sensor fungerar väldigt bra vid låga fukthalter. Den fjärde sensorn är en energicell som producerar el när den blir fuktig. Även en fuktsensor som kan läsas av på håll utvärderas. Detta sensorkoncept är baserad på vanliga RFID taggar och kan användas med både passiva och semi-passiva taggar. Denna avhandling visar att det är möjligt att tillverka sensorer till en låg kostnad in en traditionell grafisk tryckpress.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2008. , 110 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 34
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-7049ISBN: 978-91-86073-18-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-7049DiVA: diva2:117442
Presentation
2008-12-11, O102, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-12-18 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2011-02-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Characterization of moisture sensor based on printed Carbon-Zinc energy cell
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of moisture sensor based on printed Carbon-Zinc energy cell
Show others...
2005 (English)In: Polytronic 2005: 5th International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics - Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, 82-85 p., 1596492Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work we present a simple printed moisture sensor fabricated using electronic inks on a multilayer paper structure. The sensor is based on a Carbon-Zinc type energy cell and provides power to a readout electronic circuit when activated by moisture. The sensors are based on a number of our filed patents according to which the sensor is used for both event detection and as a power source for the processing electronics. Typical applications are moisture and leakage detection in buildings, water pipe lines, smart packages and health care systems such as smart incontinence sensors. As the detector is triggered, it powers up an electronic circuit (polymer based or silicon based) that starts communication with the alarm server. In the simplest systems a sound or a light alarm is started to alert the user. In this work we present a characterization of some critical parameters of the sensor such as power driving capability, linearity, internal memory effects and saturation. In addition, we examine a specific application, when sensor is used as defrosting alarm for surveillance of frozen articles during transport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005
Keyword
RFID, Printed sensors, Moisture detection
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3324 (URN)10.1109/POLYTR.2005.1596492 (DOI)000240653100016 ()2-s2.0-33847182049 (Scopus ID)3268 (Local ID)0-7803-9553-0 (ISBN)3268 (Archive number)3268 (OAI)
Conference
Polytronic 2005: 5th International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics; Warsaw; Poland; 23 October 2005 through 26 October 2005
Available from: 2008-11-13 Created: 2008-11-03 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
2. Printed touch sensor for interactive packaging and display
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Printed touch sensor for interactive packaging and display
2007 (English)In: Polytronic 2007: the 6th International IEEE Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, 12-17 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this work we present a study on the performance of printed touch sensor fabricated using conductive ink on paper substrates. The sensor system is intended to add values in surveillance of packages or in interactive point-of-purchase displays. The printed sensor changes its capacitance when it is touched or manipulated. The capacitance variations are readout using either a wireless or wired communication link. The most advanced system will utilize RFID or ZigBee readout technology while the simplest systems utilize a simple analog wire solution. The sensor technology has been developed to be easily integrated into high quality prints targeting applications such as large area touch sensitive commercial stands, flat keyboards at point-of-purchase and touch and manipulation surveillance in logistic chains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2007
Keyword
Interactive display, Printed touch sensitive sensors, Printed moisture sensors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3536 (URN)4412 (Local ID)4412 (Archive number)4412 (OAI)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-11-13 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
3. Remote Moisture Sensing utilizing Ordinary RFID Tags
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote Moisture Sensing utilizing Ordinary RFID Tags
2007 (English)In: 2007 IEEE SENSORS, VOLS 1-3, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, 308-311 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper presents a concept where pairs of ordinary RFID tags are exploited for use as remotely read moisture sensors. The pair of tags is incorporated into one label where one of the tags is embedded in a moisture absorbent material and the other is left open. In a humid environment the moisture concentration is higher in the absorbent material than the surrounding environment which causes degradation to the embedded tag’s antenna in terms of dielectric losses and change of input impedance. The level of relative humidity or the amount of water in the absorbent material is determined for a passive RFID system by comparing the difference in RFID reader output power required to power up respectively the open and embedded tag. It is similarly shown how the backscattered signal strength of a semi-active RFID system is proportional to the relative humidity and amount of water in the absorbent material. Typical applications include moisture detection in buildings, especially from leaking water pipe connections hidden beyond walls. Presented solution has a cost comparable to ordinary RFID tags, and the passive system also has infinite life time since no internal power supply is needed. The concept is characterized for two commercial RFID systems, one passive operating at 868 MHz and one semi-active operating at 2.45 GHz.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007
Series
IEEE Sensors, ISSN 1930-0395 ; 10
Keyword
RFID, Moisture Sensor
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3987 (URN)000254563600080 ()4421 (Local ID)978-1-4244-1261-7 (ISBN)4421 (Archive number)4421 (OAI)
Conference
6th IEEE Sensors Conference, Oct 28-31, 2007, Atlanta
Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
4. Characterization of Printed Moisture Sensors in Packaging Surveillance Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Printed Moisture Sensors in Packaging Surveillance Applications
2009 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 9, no 8, 922-928 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work presents a study on the performance of printed low cost moisture sensors fabricated using conductive ink on paper substrates. The sensors are intended to add value to the surveillance of packages. Two different kinds of sensors are evaluated and characterized. The two sensors have similar geometrical shapes, but different measuring principles are employed. The first sensor is measuring the moisture content in cellulose based substrates, while the second is measuring high levels of relative humidity in the surroundings. The sensors have been developed so that they can be integrated into Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems for surveillance in logistic chains. A laboratory setup of a RFID tag with sensor capability based on an ordinary passive RFID tag has been shown.

Keyword
Moisture content sensor, relative humidity sensor, printed sensors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-7048 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2009.2024866 (DOI)000268020400008 ()2-s2.0-67749088246 (Scopus ID)5033 (Local ID)5033 (Archive number)5033 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-11-13 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
5. Characterization of a printed nano-particle based relative humidity sensor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of a printed nano-particle based relative humidity sensor
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
printed sensor, humidity sensor, QME
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-6849 (URN)6048 (Local ID)6048 (Archive number)6048 (OAI)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-11-13 Created: 2008-11-02 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved

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