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Surface energy as a function of self-bias voltage in oxygen plasma wafer bonding
Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2352-9006
Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
2000 (English)In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. A82, p. 239-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A limitation in the use of wafer bonding has been the necessity for high-temperature annealing after contacting the wafers at room temperature. In this paper, we try to find the highest surface energy as a function of self-bias voltage in oxygen plasma-activated wafer bonding, in order to achieve a low-temperature bonding process. The bonding was performed in situ the vacuum chamber. It was found that oxygen plasma has a smoothing effect on the surface roughness, rather independent of the plasma self-bias. However, a moderate self-bias voltage proved to give the highest surface energy for the bonded wafers, both at room-temperature and after annealing at 200°C. We believe that this is due to the fact that a moderate self-bias is the most efficient in removing surface contaminants, like water and hydrocarbons. It was also found that even after annealing at higher temperatures, 480°C and 720°C, the plasma-bonded wafers showed higher surface energy values than wafers bonded in ambient air. This investigation was focused on low-effect plasmas, <200 W, keeping the induced plasma damages at a minimum.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. Vol. A82, p. 239-244
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31601DOI: 10.1016/S0924-4247(99)00338-6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-31601DiVA, id: diva2:1140939
Available from: 2007-02-28 Created: 2017-09-13 Last updated: 2017-09-13Bibliographically approved

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Hedlund, Christer

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