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The Absorption of Laser Light by Rough Metal Surfaces
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1544 ; 2008:08
Keyword [en]
absorptance, reflectance, laser, metals, roughness, integrating sphere
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-6878Local ID: 6064OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-6878DiVA: diva2:113950
Public defence
(English)
Available from: 2008-11-03 Created: 2008-11-03 Last updated: 2009-03-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The absorption of light by rough metal surfaces - a three-dimensional ray-tracing analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The absorption of light by rough metal surfaces - a three-dimensional ray-tracing analysis
2008 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 103, no 10, 103515- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The laser absorptance of rough surfaces has been investigated by using Monte Carlo simulations based on three-dimensional (3D) ray tracing. The influence of multiple scattering, shadowing, and the Fresnel-equation based angle dependence is discussed. The 3D results are compared to previously published results from a two-dimensional ray-tracing analysis and the different applications of the two models are explained.

Keyword
absorptance, light, surface roughness, angle of incidence, laser
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-6877 (URN)10.1063/1.2930808 (DOI)000256303800036 ()2-s2.0-44649200482 (Scopus ID)6063 (Local ID)6063 (Archive number)6063 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-11-13 Created: 2008-11-03 Last updated: 2009-03-10Bibliographically approved
2. Mathematical Modelling of Laser Absorption Mechanisms in Metals: A Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mathematical Modelling of Laser Absorption Mechanisms in Metals: A Review
2003 (English)In: M4PL16 - 16th Meeting on Mathematical Modelling of Materials Processing with Lasers, 2003Conference paper, (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

In Laser Material Processing, an understanding of the fundamental absorption mechanisms plays a vital role in determining the optimum processing parameters and conditions. To this end, a combination of experimental as well as of theoretical work is required. In this paper, results of some of the most important mathematical models of laser-metal interactions are reviewed, including models for absorptivity dependence on wavelength, polarization, angle of incidence, workpiece temperature, surface roughness, defects, impurities and oxides.

Keyword
Laser Material Processing, Laser Absorption
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-2140 (URN)1214 (Local ID)1214 (Archive number)1214 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30Bibliographically approved
3. Laser absorption measurements in opaque solids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laser absorption measurements in opaque solids
2005 (English)In: 10th NOLAMP Conference : the 10th Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference, 17-19 August 2005, Luleå Sweden, Luleå: Luleå University of Technology , 2005, 444- p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In LaserMaterial Processing, an understanding of the fundamental absorption mechanisms plays a vital role in determining the optimum processing parameters and conditions. The absorptance, which characterizes how much a material absorbs, can alter during a processing application, as a result of melting, boiling, structural changes of the surface, oxidation, plasma formation, etc. To gain knowledge of these complex processes, a combination of experimental as well as of theoretical work is required. In this paper, an overview of the most common experimental methods and techniques to measure laser absorption in opaque solids, such as metals, will be presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2005
Keyword
absorptance, reflectance, emittance, calorimetry, integrating sphere, integrating mirror
National Category
Materials Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3306 (URN)3240 (Local ID)91-631-7228-3 (ISBN)3240 (Archive number)3240 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-03-06Bibliographically approved
4. Absorptance of Non-Ferrous Alloys to Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG Laser Light at Room Temperature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Absorptance of Non-Ferrous Alloys to Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG Laser Light at Room Temperature
2006 (English)In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 46, no 8, 1290-1301 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The measurement of absorptance is important for the analysis and modelling of laser-material interactions. Unfortunately, most of the absorptance data presently available considers only polished pure metals rather than the commercially available (unpolished, oxidised) alloys which are actually being processed in manufacturing. This paper presents the results of absorptance measurements carried out at room temperature on as-received engineering grade non-ferrous metals (Al, Cu and Zn alloys). The measurements were made using an integrating sphere with an Nd:YLF laser at two wavelengths (1053nm and 527nm � which means that the results are also valid for Nd:YAG radiation at 1064nm and 532nm). The absorptance results obtained differ considerably from existing data for polished, pure metals and should help improve the accuracy of laser-material interaction models. Some clear trends were identified. For all 22 cases studied the absorptance was higher than for ideal pure, polished metals. For all Al- and Cu-samples the absorptance was higher for the green than it was for the infrared wavelength, while for all Zn-coatings this trend was reversed. No clear correlation between absorptance and surface roughness was found at low roughness values (Sa 0.15 � 0.60) but one, rougher set of samples (Sa 2.34), indicated a roughness-absorptance correlation at higher roughness levels.

Keyword
Laser materials processing; Integrating spheres; Roughness; Surface measurements, roughness.
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4120 (URN)10.1364/AO.46.001290 (DOI)000244637200015 ()2-s2.0-34047132890 (Scopus ID)4763 (Local ID)4763 (Archive number)4763 (OAI)
Note

VR-Materials Science

Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
5. The absorptance of steels to Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG laser light at room temperature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The absorptance of steels to Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG laser light at room temperature
2006 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 11, 5017-5028 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The measurement of absorptance is important for the analysis and modelling of laser-material interactions. Unfortunately, most of the absorptance data presently available considers only polished pure metals rather than the commercially available (unpolished, oxidised) alloys, which are actually being processed in manufacturing. This paper presents the results of absorptance measurements carried out at room temperature on as-received engineering grade steels including hot and cold rolled mild steel and stainless steels of various types. The measurements were made using an integrating sphere with an Nd:YLF laser at two wavelengths (1053 and 527 nm, which means that the results are also valid for Nd:YAG radiation at 1064 and 532 nm). The absorptance results obtained differ considerably from existing data for polished, pure metals and should help improve the accuracy of laser-material interaction models. Some clear trends were identified; for all materials studied, the absorptance was considerably higher than the previously published values for the relevant pure metals with polished surfaces. For all 15 samples the absorptance was higher for the green than for the infrared wavelength. No clear trend correlating the absorptance with the roughness was found for mild steel in the roughness range Sa 0.4-5.6 μm. A correlation between absorptance and roughness was noted for stainless steel for Sa values above 1.5 μm.

Keyword
Laser material processing, Absorptance, Steels, Integrating sphere
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4121 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2006.11.018 (DOI)000245500200032 ()2-s2.0-33847246442 (Scopus ID)4764 (Local ID)4764 (Archive number)4764 (OAI)
Note

VR-Materials Science

Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
6. A ray-tracing analysis of the absorption of light by smooth and rough metal surfaces
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A ray-tracing analysis of the absorption of light by smooth and rough metal surfaces
2007 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 101, no 11, 113504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ray tracing has been employed to investigate the absorption of light by smooth and random rough metal surfaces. For normally incident light the absorptance of the surface increases with surface roughness. However, for light incident at a tangent to the surface the absorptance-surface roughness relationship is more complex. For example, in certain cases the absorptance can rise, fall, and rise again as the surface roughness increases. In this paper this complex absorptance-roughness relationship is defined and explained. The wavelengths of the light chosen for this study correspond to the primary and secondary output wavelengths of Nd:YAG lasers.

National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8462 (URN)10.1063/1.2738417 (DOI)000247306000031 ()2-s2.0-34250671633 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2009-01-26 Created: 2009-01-26 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved

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