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Using bilateral functional and anthropometric tests to define symmetry in cross-country skiers
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. The Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Linnéuniversitetet.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs Universitet.
2017 (English)In: Journal of Human Kinetics, ISSN 1640-5544, E-ISSN 1899-7562Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the symmetry of anthropometry and muscle function in cross-country skiers and their association to vertical jumping power. Twenty cross-country skiers were recruited (21.7 ± 3.8 yrs, 180.6 ± 7.6 cm, 73.2 ± 7.6 kg). Anthropometric data was obtained using an iDXA scan. VO2max was determined using the diagonal stride technique on a ski treadmill. Bilateral functional tests for the upper and lower body were the handgrip and standing heel-rise tests. Vertical jump height and power were assessed with a counter movement jump. Percent asymmetry was calculated using a symmetry index and four absolute symmetry index levels. At a group level the upper body was more asymmetrical with regard to lean muscle mass (p = 0.022, d = 0.17) and functional strength (p = 0.019, d = 0.51) than the lower body. At an individual level the expected frequencies for absolute symmetry level indexes showed the largest deviation from zero for the heel-rise test (χ2 = 16.97, p = 0.001), while the leg lean mass deviated the least (χ2 = 0.42, p = 0.517). No relationships were observed between absolute symmetry level indexes of the lower body and counter movement jump performance (p > 0.05). As a group the skiers display a more asymmetrical upper body than lower body regarding muscle mass and strength. Interestingly at the individual level, despite symmetrical lean leg muscle mass the heel-rise test showed the largest asymmetry. This finding indicates a mismatch in muscle function for the lower body.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017.
Keyword [en]
Physical fitness, Body composition, Hand strength
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30938DOI: 10.1515/hukin-2017-0107OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-30938DiVA: diva2:1113149
Available from: 2017-06-21 Created: 2017-06-21 Last updated: 2017-08-22Bibliographically approved

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Björklund, GlennAlricsson, MarieSvantesson, Ulla

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