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Soil Remediation and Sustainable Development : Creating Appropriate Solutions for Marginalized Regions
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. (Ecotechnology)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5796-6672
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The scope of this doctoral thesis is appropriate soil remediation methods for marginalized regions that go beyond pollution reduction targets and include strategies to support sustainable development. Contaminated soil from industrial or agricultural activities poses potential health threats to animals and humans and also threatens economic systems by making land unsuitable for agriculture and other economic purposes. Remediation of contaminated sites in marginalized regions such as rural areas in developing countries or sparsely populated regions in industrialized countries, need strategies that meet a different set of criteria compared to urban industrial sites in order to be appropriate. A pilot-scale experimental station was built to assess the feasibility of using organic by-products to enhance the degradation of diesel fuel. It was demonstrated that bioremediation based on the use of readily available organic by-products as amendments or phytoremediation based on locally present plants can be appropriate choices of technology in marginalized regions. Systematic sustainability assessments of the regions local environmental and social context of the contaminated site are necessary to design appropriate bioremediation projects. The inclusion of ecological engineering into the framework for strategic sustainable development, as an integrated planning guide, was demonstrated by two case studies to give valuable input to the strategic process when bioremediation is used as a tool to reach sustainability goals. Results from pilot-scale experiments confirm that whey can significantly increase the degradation rate of diesel fuel, but the slow overall degradation rates due to the high clay content in ultisol (a common tropical soil) could be a considerable constraint for efficient pollutant removal in full scale applications. Results from an experiment in soil cylinders show that the vertical migration of added microorganisms was limited in dense soils. Three species of amaranth tested in the field experiment effectively bioaccumulated toxaphene and other persistent organic pollutants which make them potentially interesting candidates for phytoremediation in the region.

Abstract [sv]

Denna doktorsavhandling handlar om tillämplig marksanering i marginaliserade områden där målet går utöver saneringsmål och inkluderar strategier för främjande av hållbar utveckling. Förorenad jord från industri och jordbruksverksamheter innebär potentiella hälsorisker för djur och människor samtidigt som ekonomiska system hotas på grund av mark som blir obrukbar för jordbruk och andra ekonomiska syften. Återställande av förorenade platser i marginaliserade regioner som landsbygd i utvecklingsländer eller glesbefolkade delar av industrialiserade länder kräver strategier som möter andra kriterier än vad som krävs för urbana industriella miljöer för att kunna betecknas som tillämpliga. En försöksstation i pilotskala byggdes för att utvärdera användbarheten av att utnyttja organiska restprodukter för att öka nedbrytningshastigheten av dieselolja. Det påvisades att bioremediering baserad på användning av lättillgängliga organiska restprodukter och fytoremediering baserad på lokala växter kan vara tillämpliga teknikval i marginalisade områden. Systematiska hållbarhetsutvärderingar av den lokala situationen beträffande miljö och sociala frågor är nödvändiga för att kunna utforma tillämpliga bioremedieringsprojekt. Tillämpning av ekologisk ingenjörskonst inom ramverket för strategisk hållbar utveckling, som en integrerad planeringsguide, visade sig genom två fallstudier ge värdefulla riktlinjer för den strategiska processen då bioremediering används som ett redskap för att nå hållbarhetsmål. Resultat från ett experiment i pilotskala bekräftar att tillsatser av vassle signifikant kan öka nedbrytningen av dieselolja men den låga nedbryningshastigheten som tillskrivs den höga lerhalten i ultisol (en vanligt förekommande tropisk jord) kan vara en betydande begränsning för effektiv reduktion av föroreningar i fullskaliga tillämpningar. Resultat från ett experiment i jordcylindrar visar att den vertikala transporten av tillsatta mikroorganismer var begränsad i kompakta jordar. Tre arter av amarant som testades i ett fältexperiment visade sig effektivt kunna bioackumulera toxafen och andra  långlivade organiska föroreningar vilket gör dem till potentiellt intressanta kandidater för fytoremediering i regionen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2017. , 85 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 264
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30724ISBN: 978-91-88527-18-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-30724DiVA: diva2:1094867
Public defence
2017-06-15, Q 211, Östersund, 13:15 (English)
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 1 och 2 inskickade, delarbete 4 accepterat.

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 1 and 2 submitted, paper 4 accepted.

Available from: 2017-05-12 Created: 2017-05-11 Last updated: 2017-05-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Microbial transport of aerated compost tea organisms in clay loam and sandy loam: A soil column study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microbial transport of aerated compost tea organisms in clay loam and sandy loam: A soil column study
2016 (English)In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 106, no January, 10-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Soil bioaugmentation is a promising approach with applications in agriculture and in bioremediation of polluted soil. One way of supplying microorganisms to the soil that has received increasing attention during the last decade is by the addition of compost teas. The success of such strategies depends on whether the organisms are capable of migrating through the soil and reaching its target, i.e. the pollutants or soil pathogens. The structural conditions of the soil affect the microbial migration rate and this study aims to determine the migration rates of microorganisms found in aerated compost tea through both a sandy loam and a clay loam in soil columns. A considerably higher proportion of the microorganisms from the aerated compost tea were deposited at 2 cm in the sandy loam compared to the clay loam. Microbial deposition was concentrated to the top 2 cm in the sandy loam and then decreased abruptly at 10 cm whereas the clay loam presented an irregular pattern. Despite a favourable particle size distribution for microbial transport, the sandy loam retained a greater proportion of the microorganisms present in the aerated compost tea in the top 2 cm, presumably because the lower bulk density and higher soil organic matter in the clay loam aided transport and growth of microorganisms. The limited migration of aerated compost tea microorganisms in sandy soil suggests that its efficiency for bioremediation or pathogen control may be limited below 2 cm depth in similar soils. Our results indicate that in less dense soil with higher soil organic matter content the efficiency may be higher.

Keyword
Bioaugmentation, Bioremediation, Microbial transport, Clay loam, Sandy loam, Bulk density, Soil organic matter
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26134 (URN)10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.10.002 (DOI)000366770600002 ()2-s2.0-84944096944 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Bioremediering
Funder
The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), 202100-4524
Available from: 2015-10-24 Created: 2015-10-24 Last updated: 2017-05-12Bibliographically approved

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