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Energy contributions and pacing strategies of elite XC skiers during sprint skiing
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (NVC)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (NVC)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3814-6246
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (NVC)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (NVC)
2016 (English)Conference paper, Abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: At present, knowledge regarding energy contributions and pacing strategies during successive sprint time-trials (STTs) in cross-country (XC) skiing is limited and, therefore, the current study was designed to examine these parameters. The results shown have recently been published elsewhere (Andersson et al., 2016).METHODS: Ten well-trained male XC skiers performed four self-paced 1300-m STTs on a treadmill, separated by 45 min of recovery. The simulated STT course was divided into three flat (1°) sections (S1, S3 and S5) involving the double poling (DP) sub-technique interspersed with two uphill (7°) sections (S2 and S4) involving the diagonal stride (DS) sub-technique. Treadmill velocity and VO2 were monitored continuously and technique-specific gross efficiency (based on submaximal pre-tests) was used to estimate anaerobic energy production.RESULTS & DISCUSSION: The average STT performance time was 229 ± 9 s and the aerobic energy contribution was 82 ± 5%. A positive pacing strategy was used during all STTs, with 3-9% more time spent on the second half of the course (P < 0.05). In addition, the pacing strategy was regulated to the terrain, with substantially higher (~30%) metabolic rates, due to primarily higher anaerobic energy production, for uphill compared with flat skiing (P < 0.05). The individually fastest STT was more aggressively paced compared to the slowest STT (P < 0.05), which resulted in a higher O2 deficit rate (13 ± 4 versus 11 ± 4 mL/kg/min, P < 0.05), while the VO2 was similar (both 52 ± 3 mL/kg/min). These findings emphasise the importance of a fast start. The within-athlete coefficient of variation (CV) in performance time, VO2 and O2 deficit were 1.3 ± 0.4%, 1.4 ± 0.9% and 11.2 ± 4.9%, respectively, with the CV in O2 deficit explaining 69% of the CV in performance. The pacing strategies were highly consistent, with an average CV in speed of 3.4%.CONCLUSION: The fastest STT was characterized by more aggressive pacing and a greater anaerobic energy production. Although the individual performance time during the four STTs was highly consistent, the small within-athlete variability in performance was related to variations in anaerobic energy production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29783OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-29783DiVA: diva2:1059785
Conference
ICSS 2016 - International Congress on Science and Skiing, Arlberg, Austria, 10-15th December, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-23 Created: 2016-12-23 Last updated: 2016-12-28Bibliographically approved

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Andersson, ErikHolmberg, Hans-ChristerØrtenblad, NielsBjörklund, Glenn
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