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Double-Poling Biomechanics of Elite Cross-country Skiers: Flat versus Uphill Terrain
Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, Salzburg, Austria.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olymp Comm, Stockholm. (Swedish Winter Sports Res Ctr)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3814-6246
2016 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 48, no 8, 1580-1589 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: In light of the recent revolutionary change in the use of the doublepoling (DP) technique in cross-country skiing, our purpose was to compare the associated kinetics and kinematics on flat (DPflat) and uphill terrain (DPup), as well as to identify factors that determine performance. Methods: Thirteen elite male cross-country skiers completed two incremental speed tests (V-peak) involving roller skiing with the DP technique at moderate (13 and 24 km.h(-1)) and high speed (15 and 28.5 km.h(-1)) on a treadmill that was flat (1 degrees) or tilted uphill (7 degrees). Pole forces and three-dimensional whole-body kinematics were monitored simultaneously. Results: In comparison to DPflat, during DPup, swing times were much shorter (-48%) and peak pole forces greater (+13%) and generated later during the poling phase (+68%), with higher impulses for all force components (+87%-123%). Furthermore, pole forces were 18% more effectively oriented for propulsion. During DPup, the skiers demonstrated more flexed elbows, as well as shoulder angles that were less flexed in the forward direction and less abducted throughout the poling phase, together with more highly flexed knee and ankle joints, a more upright thorax, less flexed hips, and a shortened backward swing after pole off. With DPup, the skiers raised their center of mass 25% more, attaining maximal heel raise and maximal vertical position at a timepoint closer to pole plant compared with flat. On the uphill incline, the magnitude of V-peak was positively related to body mass, relative pole length (% body height), and magnitude of heel raise. Conclusions: The present findings provide novel insights into the coordination, kinetics and kinematics of elite skiers while DP on flat and uphill terrain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 48, no 8, 1580-1589 p.
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29500DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000943ISI: 000379757100018PubMedID: 27031747Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84962109439OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-29500DiVA: diva2:1055185
Available from: 2016-12-12 Created: 2016-12-12 Last updated: 2017-08-09Bibliographically approved

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Holmberg, Hans-Christer

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