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Tear Fluid SIgA as a Noninvasive Biomarker of Mucosal Immunity and Common Cold Risk
Bangor University, UK. (Extremes Research Group, Bangor University)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5381-736X
Bangor University, UK.
Bangor University, UK.
Bangor University, UK.
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2016 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 48, no 3, 569-577 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Research has not convincingly demonstrated the utility of saliva secretory Immunoglobulin-A (SIgA) as a biomarker of upper-respiratory-tract-infection (URTI) risk and disagreement exists about the influence of heavy exercise ('open-window-theory') and dehydration on saliva SIgA. Prompted by the search for viable alternatives, we compared the utility of tear and saliva SIgA to predict URTI prospectively (study-one) and assessed the influence of exercise (study-two) and dehydration (study-three) using a repeated-measures-crossover design.Methods: In study-one, forty subjects were recruited during the common-cold season. Subjects provided tear and saliva samples weekly and recorded upper-respiratory-symptoms (URS) daily for 3-weeks. RT-PCR confirmed common-cold pathogens in 9 of 11 subjects reporting URS (82%). Predictive utility of tear and saliva SIgA was explored by comparing healthy samples with those collected the week pre-URS. In study-two, thirteen subjects performed a 2-hour run at 65% VO2peak. In study-three, thirteen subjects performed exercise-heat-stress to 3% body-mass-loss followed by overnight fluid restriction.Results: Tear SIgA concentration and secretion rate were 48% and 51% lower respectively during URTI and 34% and 46% lower the week pre-URS (P<0.05) but saliva SIgA remained unchanged. URS risk the following week increased 9-fold (95% CI: 1.7 to 48) when tear SIgA secretion rate <5.5 μg[BULLET OPERATOR]min and 6-fold (95% CI: 1.2 to 29) when tear SIgA secretion rate decreased >30%. Tear SIgA secretion rate >5.5 μg[BULLET OPERATOR]min or no decrease >30% predicted subjects free of URS in >80% of cases. Tear SIgA concentration decreased post-exercise (-57%: P<0.05) in line with the 'open-window-theory' but was unaffected by dehydration. Saliva flow rate decreased and saliva SIgA concentration increased post-exercise and during dehydration (P<0.05).Conclusion: Tear SIgA has utility as a non-invasive biomarker of mucosal immunity and common-cold risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 48, no 3, 569-577 p.
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29093DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000801OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-29093DiVA: diva2:1034712
Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2016-12-20Bibliographically approved

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