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Metal Films for Printed Electronics: Ink-substrate Interactions and Sintering
Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2340-2363
2014 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

A new manufacturing paradigm may lower the cost and environmental impact of existing products, as well as enable completely new products. Large scale, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronics and other functionality has great potential. However, a commercial breakthrough depends on a lower consumption of materials and energy compared with competing alternatives, and that sufficiently high performance and reliability of the products can be maintained. The substrate constitutes a large part of the product, and therefore its cost and environmental sustainability are important. Electrically conducting thin films are required in many functional devices and applications. In demanding applications, metal films offer the highest conductivity.

 

In this thesis, paper substrates of various type and construction were characterized, and the characteristics were related to the performance of inkjet-printed metal patterns. Fast absorption of the ink carrier was beneficial for well-defined pattern geometry, as well as high conductivity. Surface roughness with topography variations of sufficiently large amplitude and frequency, was detrimental to the pattern definition and conductivity. Porosity was another important factor, where the characteristic pore size was much more important than the total pore volume. Apparent surface energy was important for non-absorbing substrates, but of limited importance for coatings with a high absorption rate. Applying thin polymer–based coatings on flexible non-porous films to provide a mechanism for ink solvent removal, improved the pattern definition significantly. Inkjet-printing of a ZnO-dispersion on uncoated paper provided a thin spot-coating, allowing conductivity of silver nanoparticle films. Conductive nanoparticle films could not form directly on the uncoated paper.

 

The resulting performance of printed metal patterns was highly dependent on a well adapted sintering methodology. Several sintering methods were examined in this thesis, including conventional oven sintering, electrical sintering, microwave sintering, chemical sintering and intense pulsed light sintering. Specially designed coated papers with modified chemical and physical properties, were utilized for chemical low-temperature sintering of silver nanoparticle inks. For intense pulsed light sintering and material conversion of patterns, custom equipment was designed and built. Using the equipment, inkjet-printed copper oxide patterns were processed into highly conducting copper patterns. Custom-designed papers with mesoporous coatings and porous precoatings improved the reliablility and performance of the reduction and sintering process.

 

 

 

 

The thesis aims to clarify how ink-substrate interactions and sintering methodology affect the performance and reliability of inkjet-printed nanoparticle patterns on flexible substrates. This improves the selection, adaptation, design and manufacturing of suitable substrates for inkjet-printed high conductivity patterns, such as circuit boards or RFID antennas.  

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2014. , s. 72
Serie
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 210
Nyckelord [en]
inkjet printing, silver nanoparticles, paper, flexible substrates, sintering, printed electronics, IPL sintering, flash sintering, copper films, coatings, thin films, AgNP, conductive films, metal films
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysikalisk kemi Materialteknik Nanoteknik Fysik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23420ISBN: 978-91-87557-98-9 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-23420DiVA, id: diva2:763177
Disputation
2014-12-18, Mediacenter, Digital Printing Center, Järnvägsgatan 3, Örnsköldsvik, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2014-11-14 Skapad: 2014-11-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-03-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. The importance of surface characteristics for structure definition of silver nanoparticle ink patterns on paper surfaces
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The importance of surface characteristics for structure definition of silver nanoparticle ink patterns on paper surfaces
2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: NIP26 and Digital Fabrication, Austin: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2010, s. 309-313Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Austin: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2010
Nationell ämneskategori
Materialteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12263 (URN)2-s2.0-79955715827 (Scopus ID)978-089208293-3 (ISBN)
Konferens
26th International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, NIP26 and 6th International Conference on Digital Fabrication 2010, DF 2010; Austin, TX; 19 September 2010 through 23 September 2010; Code 84729
Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-22 Skapad: 2010-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-10-05Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Effect of Paper Properties on Electrical Conductivity and Pattern Definition for Silver Nanoparticle Inkjet Ink
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effect of Paper Properties on Electrical Conductivity and Pattern Definition for Silver Nanoparticle Inkjet Ink
2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of LOPE-C 2012, 2012, s. 115-119Konferensbidrag, Enbart muntlig presentation (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In this work, electrical conductivity and print pattern definition isstudied for silver nanoparticle ink, printed on ten commerciallyavailable paper substrates. Interrelations and correlations betweenelectrical conductivity, print pattern definition and a set ofmeasured paper properties are analyzed with a multivariatestatistical method. The papers are characterized in terms ofabsorption rate, porosity, apparent surface energy, surfaceroughness and surface material content. The statistical analysisshows that electrical conductivity and print pattern definition arecorrelated. Conductivity and print definition are correlatedpositively with absorption rate and negatively with surfaceroughness. A model based on projection to latent structures (PLS) isbuilt from the measurement data, showing adequate values of modelfit and predictive ability. This suggests that the chosen propertiesand methods for surface characterization are relevant in estimatingoverall performance of inkjet-printed conductors on paper.Additionally, a qualitative examination of the nanoparticle layercharacteristic is conducted with SEM cross section microscopy.Some of the properties and mechanisms of importance to theconductivity of the printed conductors are highlighted, of whichsome are crucial for achieving conductivity. Physical characteristicsof a suitable paper surface should ideally include large absorptioncapability for the ink carrier, but most importantly, a characteristicpore size and surface roughness amplitude that are both smallcompared to the dry ink layer thickness. If these criteria are met,paper media can be a low cost, comparably high performancealternative for metal nanoparticle inks in printed electronics applications.

Nyckelord
Inkjet, Nanoparticles, Sintering, printed electronics, paper, conductive inks, functional printing
Nationell ämneskategori
Nanoteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16589 (URN)978-3-00-038122-5 (ISBN)
Konferens
Large-area, Organic and Printed Electronics Convention (LOPE-C) 2012
Tillgänglig från: 2012-06-27 Skapad: 2012-06-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-11-14Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Paper Surfaces for Metal Nanoparticle Inkjet Printing
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Paper Surfaces for Metal Nanoparticle Inkjet Printing
2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 259, s. 731-739Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The widespread usage of paper and board offer largely unexploited possibilities for printed electronics applications. Reliability and performance of printed devices on comparatively rough and inhomogenous surfaces of paper does however pose challenges.Silver nanoparticle ink has been deposited on ten various paper substrates by inkjet printing. The papers are commercially available, and selected over a range of different types and construction. A smooth nonporous polyimide film was included as a nonporous reference substrate. The substrates have been characterized in terms of porosity, absorption rate, apparent surface energy, surface roughness and material content. The electrical conductivity of the resulting printed films have been measured after drying at 60°C and again after additional sintering at 110°C. A qualitative analysis of the conductivity differences on the different substrates based on surface characterization and SEM examination is presented. Measurable parameters of importance to the final conductivity are pointed out, some of which are crucial to achieve conductivity. When certain criteria of the surfaces are met, paper media can be used as low cost, but comparably high performance substrates for metal nanoparticle inks in printed electronics applications.

Nyckelord
printed electronics, inkjet printing, paper substrates, flexible substrates, nanoparticles, conductive inks
Nationell ämneskategori
Nanoteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16448 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.07.112 (DOI)000310436900110 ()2-s2.0-84866051319 (Scopus ID)STC (Lokalt ID)STC (Arkivnummer)STC (OAI)
Tillgänglig från: 2012-06-14 Skapad: 2012-06-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Sintering Methods for Metal Nanoparticle Inks on Flexible Substrates
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sintering Methods for Metal Nanoparticle Inks on Flexible Substrates
2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: NIP 25: DIGITAL FABRICATION 2009, TECHNICAL PROGRAM AND PROCEEDINGS, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2009, s. 614-617Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In this paper a number of selective sintering methods suitable for inkjet printed nanoparticles are demonstrated on two different coated papers. The selective methods demonstrated here are electric current heating, microwave sintering and photonic curing. As a reference, conventional heat chamber sintering is also included. Conductivity measurements and studies of sintered structures with optical and scanning electron microscopy are performed, as well as a qualitative evaluation of how the heat-sensitive substrates are affected. The purpose is to analyze characteristics of each method and gain insight in how different process parameters affect overall performance and reliability. With heat chamber sintering the best achievable conductivity without substrate deformation corresponded to less than 20% of pure silver. With some selective methods, conductivity reached well above 50% of pure silver.

 

 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2009
Nyckelord
silver nanoink, sintering
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan elektroteknik och elektronik Annan materialteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-10154 (URN)000279358900167 ()2-s2.0-77952635220 (Scopus ID)978-089208287-2 (ISBN)
Konferens
NIP25: 25th International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies and Digital Fabrication 2009; Louisville, KY; 20 September 2009 through 24 September 2009; Code 80244
Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-21 Skapad: 2009-10-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-10-05Bibliografiskt granskad
5. Assisted sintering of silver nanoparticle inkjet inks on paper with active coatings
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Assisted sintering of silver nanoparticle inkjet inks on paper with active coatings
Visa övriga...
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, s. 64841-64849Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Inkjet-printed metal films are important within the emerging field of printed electronics. For large-scale manufacturing, low-cost flexible substrates and low temperature sintering is desired. Tailored coated substrates are interesting for roll-to-roll fabrication of printed electronics, since a suitable tailoring of the ink-substrate system may reduce, or remove, the need for explicit sintering. Here we utilize specially designed coated papers, containing chloride as an active sintering agent. The built-in sintering agent greatly assists low-temperature sintering of inkjet-printed AgNP films. Further, we examine the effect of variations in coating pore size and precoating type. Interestingly, we find that the sintering is substantially affected by these parameters.

Nyckelord
printed electronics, sintering, inkjet printing, silver nanoparticles, AgNP, thin films, paper, coatings, chemical sintering, mesoporous, flexible electronics
Nationell ämneskategori
Materialteknik Nanoteknik Materialkemi Pappers-, massa- och fiberteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23418 (URN)10.1039/c5ra06626c (DOI)000359136500003 ()2-s2.0-84938717754 (Scopus ID)STC (Lokalt ID)STC (Arkivnummer)STC (OAI)
Tillgänglig från: 2014-11-13 Skapad: 2014-11-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad
6. Inkjet Fabrication of Copper Patterns for Flexible Electronics: Using Paper with Active Precoatings
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Inkjet Fabrication of Copper Patterns for Flexible Electronics: Using Paper with Active Precoatings
Visa övriga...
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, nr 33, s. 18273-18282Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Low-cost solution-processing of highly conductive films is important for the expanding market of printed electronics. For roll-to-roll manufacturing, suitable flexible substrates and compatible postprocessing are essential. Here, custom-developed coated papers are demonstrated to facilitate the inkjet fabrication of high performance copper patterns. The patterns are fabricated in ambient conditions using water-based CuO dispersion and intense pulsed light (IPL) processing. Papers using a porous CaCO3 precoating, combined with an acidic mesoporous absorption coating, improve the effectiveness and reliability of the IPL process. The processing is realizable within 5 ms, using a single pulse of light. A resistivity of 3.1 ± 0.12 μΩ·cm is achieved with 400 μm wide conductors, corresponding to more than 50% of the conductivity of bulk copper. This is higher than previously reported results for IPL-processed copper.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
Nyckelord
intense pulsed light sintering, flash light sintering, printed flexible electronics, inkjet printing, paper coatings, copper patterns, IPL sintering, IPL processing, paper electronics, CuO reduction, inkjet fabrication
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysikalisk kemi Materialteknik Nanoteknik Materialkemi Pappers-, massa- och fiberteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23419 (URN)10.1021/acsami.5b03061 (DOI)000360322000012 ()2-s2.0-84940528167 (Scopus ID)STC (Lokalt ID)STC (Arkivnummer)STC (OAI)
Tillgänglig från: 2014-11-13 Skapad: 2014-11-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad

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