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Extension of the Stokes equation for layered constructions to fluorescent turbid media
Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design. (DPC)
Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design. (FSCN)
Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design. (FSCN)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-0529-1009
2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, ISSN 1084-7529, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 574-578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Expressions relating the bispectral reflectance of a stack of n fluorescinglayers to each individual layer's reflectance and transmittance arederived. This theoretical framework is used together with recentlyproposed extensions of the Kubelka--Munk model to study the fluorescencefrom layered turbid media. For one layer over a reflecting background,the model is shown to give the same results as a previous model.The extension to n layers with different optical properties allowssimulating the bispectral reflectance from a pad of layered turbidmedia. The applicability of the model is exemplified with an optimizationof fluorophore distribution in layered turbid media.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Optical Society of America, 2012. Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 574-578
Emneord [en]
Fluorescence; Multiple scattering; Turbid media; Color
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16015ISI: 000302561500025Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84873472513OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-16015DiVA, id: diva2:511712
Prosjekter
PaperOptTilgjengelig fra: 2012-03-23 Laget: 2012-03-23 Sist oppdatert: 2018-02-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Whiteness and Fluorescence in Layered Paper and Board: Perception and Optical Modelling
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Whiteness and Fluorescence in Layered Paper and Board: Perception and Optical Modelling
2012 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is about modelling and predicting the perceived whiteness of plain paper from the paper composition, including fluorescent whitening agents. This involves psychophysical modelling of perceived whiteness from measurable light reflectance properties, and physical modelling of light scattering and fluorescence from the paper composition.

Existing models are first tested and improvements are suggested and evaluated. A colour appearance model including simultaneous contrast effects (CIECAM02-m2), earlier tested on coloured surfaces, is successfully applied to perceived whiteness. An extension of the Kubelka-Munk light scattering model including fluorescence for turbid media of finite thickness is successfully tested for the first time on real papers. It is extended to layered constructions with different layer optical properties and modified to enable parameter estimation with conventional d/0° spectrophotometers used in the paper industry. Lateral light scattering is studied to enable simulating the spatially resolved radiance factor from layered constructions, and angle-resolved radiance factor simulations are performed to study angular variation of whiteness.

It is shown that the linear CIE whiteness equation fails to predict the perceived whiteness of highly white papers with distinct bluish tint. This equation is applicable only in a defined region of the colour space, a condition that is shown to be not fulfilled by many commercial office papers, although they appear white to most observers. The proposed non-linear whiteness equations give to these papers a whiteness value that correlates with their perceived whiteness, while application of the CIE whiteness equation outside its region of validity overestimates perceived whiteness.

It is shown that the fluorescence efficiency of FWA is essentially dependent only on the ability of the FWA to absorb light in its absorption band. Increased FWA concentration leads accordingly to increased whiteness. However, since FWA absorbs light in the violet-blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum, the reflectance factor decreases in that region with increasing FWA amount. This violet-blue absorption tends to give a greener shade to the paper and explains most of the observed greening and whiteness saturation at larger FWA concentrations. A red-ward shift of the quantum efficiency is observed with increasing FWA concentration, but this is shown to have a negligible effect on the whiteness value. The results are directly applicable to industrial applications for better instrumental measurement of whiteness and thereby optimising the use of FWA with the goal to improve the perceived whiteness.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Sundsvall: annat förlag, 2012. s. 158
Serie
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 138
Emneord
Whiteness, Perception, Colour Appearance Modelling, Paper Optics, Light Scattering, Fluorescence, Lateral Light Scattering, White-Top Mottle, Kubelka-Munk, Radiative Transfer
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17782 (URN)978-91-87103-50-6 (ISBN)
Disputas
2013-01-23, Sal 0111, Mittuniversitetet, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:31 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Prosjekter
PaperOpt
Forskningsfinansiär
The Knowledge FoundationVinnova
Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-12-20 Laget: 2012-12-17 Sist oppdatert: 2012-12-20bibliografisk kontrollert

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Scopushttp://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-29-4-574

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Gustafsson Coppel, LudovicNeuman, MagnusEdström, Per

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