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Joint-angle Measurement Using Accelerometers and Gyroscopes: A Survey
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Electronics design division, STC)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Electronics design division)
2010 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 404-414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an analysis of rigid-body joint-angle measurement based on microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) biaxial accelerometers and uniaxial gyroscopes. In comparison to conventional magnetic and optical joint angular sensors, this new inertial sensing principle has the advantages of flexible installation and true contactless sensing. This paper focuses on the comparison of four different inertial-sensor combination methods that are reported in reference papers and utilizes the theory of rigid-body kinematics to explain and analyze their advantages and weaknesses. Experiments have also been conducted to further verify and strengthen the arguments put forward in the analysis. All experiments in this paper took place on a custom-built rigid-body robot arm model that can be manipulated by hand. Sensor calibration and accelerometer alignment issues are also described, and their details are discussed. The experiment results presented in this paper show significant differences with reference to the achieved angular accuracy for various situations when using the four different sensor combination methods. In some cases, the angular error based on one method is more than 0.04 rad, while that from another method is within +/-0.005 rad. The noise levels of angular readings from different methods are also experimentally compared and analyzed. The conclusion drawn serves to guide readers toward a suitable method for their particular application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 59, no 2, p. 404-414
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9493DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2009.2024367ISI: 000273565700018Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-76149085497OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-9493DiVA, id: diva2:228307
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that CommunicateAvailable from: 2009-07-28 Created: 2009-07-28 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Applications of embedded sensors in loader crane positioning and rotor RPM measurement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications of embedded sensors in loader crane positioning and rotor RPM measurement
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, two novel applications involving embedded sensors arestudied, one dealing with loader crane positioning and the other involving rotorRevolutions Per Minute (RPM) measurement. The thesis presents a generalintroduction to the embedded sensor, its architecture and its use in mechanicalindustry, and provides the reader with an overview of conventional sensortechnologies within the fields of angle sensors and angular speed sensors, coveringtheir working principles, features, advantages and disadvantages and typicalapplications. The particular problems associated with the use of conventionalsensors in both loader crane positioning and rotor RPM measurement aredescribed and these problems provided the motivation for the designs of theembedded sensor systems developed in this thesis.In the case of the loader crane positioning, the origins of the project and thespecial requirements of the application are described in detail. In addition, apreliminary study is conducted in relation to the idea of a contactless joint angularsensor using MEMS inertial sensors in which four different methods, namely, theCommon-Mode-Rejection with Gyro Integration (CMRGI), Common-Mode-Rejection (CMR), Common-Mode-Rejection with Gyro Differentiation (CMRGD)and Distributed Common-Mode-Rejection (DCMR), are conceived, modeled andtested on a custom-designed prototype experimental setup. The results gatheredfrom these four methods are compared and analyzed in order to identify thedifferences in their performances. The methods, which proved to be suitable, arethen further tested using the prototype sensor setup on a loader crane and theperformance results are analyzed in order to make a decision in relation to the twomost suitable methods for the application of the loader crane positioning. Theresults suggested that the two most suitable were the CMRGD and the DCMR. Thepractical design issues relating to this sensor system are highlighted andsuggestions are made in the study. Additionally, possible future work for thisproject is also covered.In the first case for the rotor RPM measurement, the thesis presents themodeling and simulation of the stator-free RPM sensor idea using the Monte Carlomethod, which demonstrated the special features and performance of this sensor.The design aspects of the prototype sensor are described in detail and theprototype is tested on an experimental setup. The conclusions for the stator-freeRPM sensor are then made from the analysis of the experimental results and futurework in relation to this sensor is also proposed.In the second case of the rotor RPM measurement, the thesis presentsanother idea involving the laser mouse RPM sensor and the main focus of thestudy is on the performance characterization of the laser mouse sensor and theverification of the RPM sensor idea. Experiments are conducted using the test setup and results are gathered and analyzed and conclusions are drawn.Possibilities in relation to future work for this laser mouse RPM sensor are alsoprovided.The summary and the conclusion form the final chapter of the thesis andseveral important aspects of the designs relating to both the loader cranepositioning project and the rotor RPM measurement project are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2011. p. 63
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 114
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15710 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-86694-56-2 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-01-16 Created: 2012-01-16 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved

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Cheng, PengOelmann, Bengt

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