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Development of Process Technology for Photon Radiation Measurement Applications
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Electronics Design Division)
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents work related to new types of photo detectors and their applications. The focus has been on the development of process technology and methods by means of experimentation and measurements. The overall aim has been to develop and improve photon radiation measurement applications which are possible to manufacture using standard Si processing technology.

A new type of position sensitive detector that has switching possibilities based on the MOS principle has been fabricated and characterized. The influence of mechanical stress on the linearity of position sensitive detectors has been investigated. The results show that mechanical stress arising, for example, by the mounting of detectors in capsules can have an impact on device performance. Under normal circumstances these effects are rather small, but are considered to be worthwhile taking into account.

Electroless deposition of Nickel including various dopants in porous silicon was performed to manufacture electrical contacts for this interesting material. After heat treatment it was confirmed by X-ray diffraction that Nickel silicide had been formed and I-V measurements show that different contacts exhibit Ohmic and rectifying behaviour.

Spectrometers are used extensively in the process and food industry to measure both the chemical content and the amount of substances used during manufacturing. These instruments are often rather bulky and costly, though the trend is towards smaller and more portable equipment. A spectrometer based on an array of Fabry-Perot interferometers mounted close to an array detector is shown to be a viable option for the manufacture of a very compact device. Such a device has minimal intermediate optics and it may be possible, in the future, for it to be developed and completely integrated with a detector array into a single unit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2007. , p. 42
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 16
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9334ISBN: 91-85317-32-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-9334DiVA, id: diva2:227262
Presentation
(English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-07-10 Created: 2009-07-10 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Processing and characterization of a position sensitive lateral-effect metal oxide semiconductor detector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Processing and characterization of a position sensitive lateral-effect metal oxide semiconductor detector
2004 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 531, no 1-2, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Position sensingdetectors (PSDs) are useful in many applications, such as vibration, displacement, and triangulation measurements. In this paper we present a lateral-effect metal oxide semiconductor PSD with switchingcapability fabricated by our group. The detector can be switched off by the application of 0V on the substrate and 0.2V on the gate. A linear current-position behaviour is exhibited by the detector at a substrate bias of both 5 and 10V with the gate at 0V. There is no effect on the linearity when the substrate voltage is changed from 5 to 10V. The non-linearity is within 0.2% at a distance of 71.5mm from origin for 5, 10 and 15mm device length.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2004
Keywords
MOS ITO PSD position sensitive detector anti reflective coating
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3540 (URN)10.1016/j.nima.2004.05.108 (DOI)000224233400020 ()1598 (Local ID)1598 (Archive number)1598 (OAI)
Conference
5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Sep 07-11, 2003, Riga, Latvia
Note
5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Sep 07-11, 2003, Riga, LatviaAvailable from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. The effect of mechanical stress on lateral-effect position sensitive detector characteristics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of mechanical stress on lateral-effect position sensitive detector characteristics
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 563, no 1, p. 150-154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used in noncontact measurement systems. In order to minimize the size of such systems, interest has increased in mounting the PSD chip directly onto printed circuit boards (PCBs). Stress may be induced in the PSD because of the large differences in thermal expansion coefficients, as well as the long-term geometrical stability of the chip packaging. Mechanical stress has previously been shown to have an effect on the performance of semiconductors. The accuracy, or linearity, of a lateral effect PSD is largely dependent on the homogeneity of the resistive layer. Variations of the resistivity over the active area of the PSD will result in an uneven distribution of photo-generated current, and hence an error in the readout position. In this work experiments were performed to investigate the influence of anisotropic mechanical stress in terms of nonlinearity. PSD chips of 60×3 mm active area were subjected, respectively, to different amounts of compressive and tensile stress to determine the influence on the linearity.

Keywords
PSD; position-sensitive detector; position-sensing detector; mechanical stress; piezoresistivity
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-360 (URN)10.1016/j.nima.2006.01.084 (DOI)000238764700036 ()2-s2.0-33744993214 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Jul 04-07, 2005, Grenoble, France
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Note

7th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Jul 04-07, 2005, Grenoble, France

Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2009-03-24 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. Multi Channel Array Interferometer-Fourier Spectrometer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi Channel Array Interferometer-Fourier Spectrometer
2006 (English)In: 2006 Northern Optics Conference Proceedings, New York: IEEE , 2006, p. 1-6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The characterization and design of a Fourier transform spectrometer, which enables the integration of a multi channel interferometer with a detector unit in order to create a compact device is presented in this paper. It operates within a wide spectral range from visible to NIR, contains no moving parts and is resistible to mechanical and climatic conditions. Such a design with an array or matrix detector can be used for spectroscopy with a partially coherent or white optical source depending on the shape of the optical interferometer. A reasonable spectral resolution of the order of 20-50 cm-1 can be achieved over a 1 µm wavelength range when using a 512 pixel detector array. A design model for characterization of the quasi integrated device, where a multi channel interferometer was mechanically attached and which contained a gap to the detector elements, was used. The experimental results are promising and suggest a variety of different directions for the development and application of these types of integrated spectrometers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE, 2006
Keywords
Fabry-Perot interferometers, Fourier spectroscopy, Optical spectroscopy, Spectroscopy
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3539 (URN)000245891100001 ()4209 (Local ID)978-1-4244-0435-3 (ISBN)4209 (Archive number)4209 (OAI)
Conference
3rd Northern Optics Conference, Jun 14-16, 2006, Bergen, Norway
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-12-11 Created: 2008-12-10 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
4. Electroless deposition and silicidation of Ni contacts into p-type Porous Silicon
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electroless deposition and silicidation of Ni contacts into p-type Porous Silicon
2008 (English)In: Journal of porous materials, ISSN 1380-2224, E-ISSN 1573-4854, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 335-341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Porous Silicon (PS) has attracted much attention since the discovery of its photo luminescent behavior. It has also been used for various other applications such as electroluminescent light emitting-diodes (LEDs), photodetectors and solar cells. For such devices, it is important to make good metallic Ohmic contacts to the PS in order to maximize the efficiency. In order to produce buried contacts, barrier layers, Schottky devices, etc. in PS, it is advantageous to deposit metal that covers not only the surface of the porous layer, but also the inside walls and the bottom of the pores. In this work experiments were performed to examine the morphology and properties of electroless deposition of Nickel into p-type PS and subsequent formation of Nickel silicide after heat treatment. Circular PS samples of 6 mm diameter were produced by anodizing p-type Silicon wafers for 15 min and were subsequently plated with Ni using three different plating baths. The pores are on average 20 µm deep and 4 µm wide. Two samples of each type were heat treated in an nitrogen atmosphere for one hour at 400 and 600°C respectively to produce Nickel silicide. Reference samples were made by means of electron beam evaporation of Ni. SEM micrographs show that the best pore coverage was achieved using the Ni plating bath containing hypophosphite. I–V characterization shows that different rectifying and Ohmic contacts can be formed between electroless deposited Ni and PS depending on the conditions of the heat treatment. XRD and EDX characterizations show that both the NiSi and Ni2Si phases exist in the sample at the same time.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8335 (URN)10.1007/s10934-006-9090-2 (DOI)000255114900014 ()2-s2.0-42449142758 (Scopus ID)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2009-01-19 Created: 2009-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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