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On the Design, Characterization and Optimization of RFID Tag Antennas
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Remotely read electronic identification tags are establishing as the standard method of identifying objects in transport logistcs. They are referred to as RFID tags and with successful research and development they are likely to one day replace all of todays barcodes, found on a wide variety of items and objects. As RFID systems consist of many different parts spanning over just as many academic subjects, this thesis investigates some of the main issues regarding RFID tag antennas. Large focus is put on performance and cost optimization of relatively simple one‐layer antennas, suitable for mass production in commercial printing presses using electrically conductive ink. Examples of specially designed antennas include ones that can operate upon metallic objects and antennas that can be physicall bent. It is also shown how RFID tag antennas that will be widely exposed to the human eye can include a commercial value by letting heir geometric design originate from group insignias and company logos. The thesis also presents a solution of how pairs of ordinary low cost RFID tags can be used as remotely read moisture sensors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2007. , p. 151
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 28
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8889ISBN: 978-91-85317-58-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-8889DiVA, id: diva2:216084
Public defence
, Sundsvall (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-06 Created: 2009-05-06 Last updated: 2009-07-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. On the behavior of printed RFID tag antennas, using conductive paint
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the behavior of printed RFID tag antennas, using conductive paint
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2003 (English)In: Antenn 03. Nordic Antenna Symposium, 13-15 May 2003 , Kalmar, Sweden, 2003, p. 371-374Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keywords
RFID, Antennas
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1917 (URN)761 (Local ID)761 (Archive number)761 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-11-13 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2014-04-23Bibliographically approved
2. On the Efficiency of Printed RFID Antennas: (skriven för IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Efficiency of Printed RFID Antennas: (skriven för IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices)
(English)Manuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Keywords
RFID, Conductive ink, Antennas
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-6612 (URN)3528 (Local ID)3528 (Archive number)3528 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-05-06 Created: 2009-05-06 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
3. Printed RFID Antennas: Adaption to Background Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Printed RFID Antennas: Adaption to Background Materials
2006 (English)In: Antenn 06, 30 May-1 June, in Linköping, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Other scientific)
Keywords
RFID, Antennas
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1098 (URN)4423 (Local ID)4423 (Archive number)4423 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
4. Reduced Amount of Conductive Ink with Gridded Printed Antennas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced Amount of Conductive Ink with Gridded Printed Antennas
2005 (English)In: Polytronic 2005: 5th International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics - Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, p. 86-89, article id 1596493Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It becomes more and more common to print tag antennas using electrically conductive ink for mass-produced Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags. Electrical properties of the ink are mostly determined by conductive (e.g. silver) particles mixed into the ink solution. Since silver is relatively expensive it is desirable to minimize the amount of ink used per antenna. This paper illustrates how the printed conductor area of the antenna can be reduced by applying a grid pattern to an existing antenna geometry and to what extent the gridding can be performed without significantly degrading of the antenna electrical properties. Two common antenna structures are used as an example. It is also shown that by slightly modifying the original antenna geometry it is possible to even further reduce the amount of used ink.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005
Keywords
RFID, Silver Ink, Printed Antennas
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3323 (URN)10.1109/POLYTR.2005.1596493 (DOI)000240653100017 ()2-s2.0-33847188106 (Scopus ID)3267 (Local ID)0-7803-9553-0 (ISBN)3267 (Archive number)3267 (OAI)
Conference
Polytronic 2005: 5th International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics; Warsaw; Poland; 23 October 2005 through 26 October 2005
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
5. Line Width Limitations of Flexographic- Screen- and Inkjet printed RFID Antennas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Line Width Limitations of Flexographic- Screen- and Inkjet printed RFID Antennas
2007 (English)In: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, AP-S International Symposium (Digest), New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 1745-1748Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007
Series
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, ISSN 1522-3965 ; 2
Keywords
RFID, Antenna
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4216 (URN)10.1109/APS.2007.4395852 (DOI)000255973401052 ()2-s2.0-48349136313 (Scopus ID)4946 (Local ID)978-1-4244-0877-1 (ISBN)4946 (Archive number)4946 (OAI)
Conference
IEEE Antennas-and-Propagation-Society International Symposium, Jun 09-15, 2007, Honolulu
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-07-29 Last updated: 2017-10-20Bibliographically approved
6. Printed RFID Antennas: Adaption to Background Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Printed RFID Antennas: Adaption to Background Materials
2006 (English)In: Antenn 06, 30 May-1 June, in Linköping, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Other scientific)
Keywords
RFID, Antennas
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1098 (URN)4423 (Local ID)4423 (Archive number)4423 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
7. Silver Ink Printed Patch Antenna for Passive RFID
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Silver Ink Printed Patch Antenna for Passive RFID
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9394 (URN)
Note
Submitted to 2007 Int Sump on Ant and Prop ISAP´07Available from: 2009-07-16 Created: 2009-07-16 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
8. Evaluation of a printed patch antenna for robust microwave RFID tags
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a printed patch antenna for robust microwave RFID tags
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2007 (English)In: IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, ISSN 1751-8725, E-ISSN 1751-8733, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 776-781Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antennas in RFID tags have often been designed in a single layer with copper as conductor and plastic foils as substrate. There is currently a large interest in roll to roll production of RFID tags and silver based inks have been developed for use in printed RFID antennas. Silver ink based single layer antennas works well and is providing 70% to 80% of the reading range compared to copper solutions. However, more advanced antennas are needed to provide less sensitivity to the environment of RFID tags .i.e. need for placing tags on metal or near water. In this work we present a study of multilayered antennas so called patch antennas, for 2.45 GHz RFID tags. The advantage of the patch antenna is that it can be applied to any kind of material, reflecting or lossy material, and still provide good antenna function. However, the patch antenna efficiency is strongly dependent on the material used. For low cost RFID tags in logistics there is a need to manufacture the antenna as a part of the packaging process. In the current work we have investigated the possibility to manufacture printed patch antennas of common packaging materials.

Keywords
RFID, Antenna, Conductive ink
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4096 (URN)10.1049/iet-map:20060148 (DOI)000247853300038 ()2-s2.0-34249898053 (Scopus ID)4670 (Local ID)4670 (Archive number)4670 (OAI)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Note

VR-

Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
9. Performance Degradation of RFID System due to the Distortion in RFID Tag Antenna
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Degradation of RFID System due to the Distortion in RFID Tag Antenna
2001 (English)In: CriMiCo 2001 - 11th International Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2001, p. 371-373, article id 1173865Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In some of the radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications, RFID tag antennas will be printed onto flexible substrates. Sticked onto different surfaces, geometric distortion of the tag antenna, such as bending of the tag, could occur due to antenna substrate flexibility. In the present paper performance degradation due to such distortion of an RFID system, using the common half-wave dipole antennas usually used in tags, is simulated. It is shown that degradation of RFID system performance in terms of operating range due to such distortion is significant and that antenna structures less sensitive for this deformation should be considered for RFID systems where this kind of effect may occur.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2001
Keywords
Antenna, dipole
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1798 (URN)2-s2.0-34547312886 (Scopus ID)506 (Local ID)966-7968-00-6 (ISBN)506 (Archive number)506 (OAI)
Conference
11th International Conference "Microwave and Telecommunication Technology", CriMiCo 2001; Sevastopol, Crimea; Ukraine; 10 September 2001 through 14 September 2001
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
10. Printed RFID tag antennas with minimal performance degradation when bent
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Printed RFID tag antennas with minimal performance degradation when bent
2003 (English)In: Proceedings of Asia Pacific Microwave Conference 2003, APMC'03, Seoul, South Korea, November 4-7, 2003., 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keywords
RFID, Antennas, Printed, Bent
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1918 (URN)762 (Local ID)762 (Archive number)762 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-07-10 Last updated: 2014-04-23Bibliographically approved
11. A Distanced RFID Dipole for a Metallic Supply Chain Label
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Distanced RFID Dipole for a Metallic Supply Chain Label
2006 (English)In: 2006 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 9-14 July 2006 , Albuquerque, NM, USA, 2006, p. 3229-3232Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
Antennas, RFID
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3742 (URN)4015 (Local ID)1 4244 0123 2 (ISBN)4015 (Archive number)4015 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-11-30 Created: 2008-11-30 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
12. Slots in Metallic Label as RFID Tag Antenna
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Slots in Metallic Label as RFID Tag Antenna
2007 (English)In: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, AP-S International Symposium (Digest), New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 1600-1603Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007
Series
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, ISSN 1522-3965 ; 8
Keywords
RFID
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4214 (URN)000255973401053 ()2-s2.0-48349101694 (Scopus ID)4945 (Local ID)978-1-4244-0877-1 (ISBN)4945 (Archive number)4945 (OAI)
Conference
IEEE Antennas-and-Propagation-Society International Symposium, Jun 09-15, 2007, Honolulu
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2017-10-20Bibliographically approved
13. An Electrically Small Elliptic PIFA for RFID in Harsh Metallic Environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Electrically Small Elliptic PIFA for RFID in Harsh Metallic Environments
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems, COMCAS 2013, 2013, Art. no. 6685309-, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, , p. -Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To remotely identify a metallic object with an RFID tag it is required that the tag’s antenna consists of more than one layer of conducting material, where one layer can comprise the metallic object itself, or alternatively one can use the object itself to make a slot antenna. Tag antennas are also seldom smaller than about ¼ of a wavelength. This paper presents a capacitively fed PIFA for passive UHF RFID wherethe radiating element has received elliptical geometry and is placed inside a circular metallic cup that constitutes the tagantenna’s boundary conditions and is protected by a top layer ofan extremely hard plastic material that also works as a superstrate. The elliptic radiating patch has length of only 0.068 wavelengths and with its cup it has total antenna diameter of0.084 wavelengths and total antenna height 0.016 wavelengths.The final RFID tag can be placed upon a metallic or non-metallicsurface or immersed into the same to create an overall flat surface, as long as it is optimized for the specific situation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013. p. -
Keywords
RFID, Electrically Small Antennas
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4218 (URN)10.1109/COMCAS.2013.6685309 (DOI)000330240700086 ()2-s2.0-84893279275 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-1-4673-5754-8 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
2013 IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems, COMCAS 2013; Tel Aviv; Israel; 21 October 2013 through 23 October 2013; Code 102376
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
14. Logos as RFID Tag Antennas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Logos as RFID Tag Antennas
2008 (English)In: International Journal on Wireless and Optical Communications RFID special issue, ISSN 0219-7995, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Printed Antennas, RFID
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8073 (URN)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2009-01-07 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
15. Remote Moisture Sensing utilizing Ordinary RFID Tags
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote Moisture Sensing utilizing Ordinary RFID Tags
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 308-311Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper presents a concept where pairs of ordinary RFID tags are exploited for use as remotely read moisture sensors. The pair of tags is incorporated into one label where one of the tags is embedded in a moisture absorbent material and the other is left open. In a humid environment the moisture concentration is higher in the absorbent material than the surrounding environment which causes degradation to the embedded tag’s antenna in terms of dielectric losses and change of input impedance. The level of relative humidity or the amount of water in the absorbent material is determined for a passive RFID system by comparing the difference in RFID reader output power required to power up respectively the open and embedded tag. It is similarly shown how the backscattered signal strength of a semi-active RFID system is proportional to the relative humidity and amount of water in the absorbent material. Typical applications include moisture detection in buildings, especially from leaking water pipe connections hidden beyond walls. Presented solution has a cost comparable to ordinary RFID tags, and the passive system also has infinite life time since no internal power supply is needed. The concept is characterized for two commercial RFID systems, one passive operating at 868 MHz and one semi-active operating at 2.45 GHz.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007
Series
IEEE Sensors, ISSN 1930-0395 ; 10
Keywords
RFID, Moisture Sensor
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3987 (URN)000254563600080 ()2-s2.0-48349112137 (Scopus ID)4421 (Local ID)978-1-4244-1261-7 (ISBN)4421 (Archive number)4421 (OAI)
Conference
6th IEEE Sensors Conference, Oct 28-31, 2007, Atlanta
Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
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  • asciidoc
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