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Problems in public e-service development
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (PI - Publika Informationssystem)
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis focuses on the general problem of integration and co-operation between business and IT organisations, and on the specific problem of co-ordinating the development process across stovepiped departments that do not collaborate cross-functionally. The purpose is to increase knowledge and understanding about public organisations’ difficulties in meeting their customers’ and the organisation’s needs for electronic services. The thesis also presents a model showing the relationships between factors of importance for understanding public organisations’ difficulties in implementing cross-functional or inter-departmental electronic services. The research is based on case studies of public and private organisations, and results show that public organisations attempting e-government will face large problems if they are unable to solve their internal stovepipe problems. On the other hand, they cannot expect the stovepipe problems to be solved without increasing customer orientation. Many private organisations have increased their speed in e-services, customer orientation and organisational changes, and have faced economic pressure early, while the public organisations are impeded by the role of law, complex goal structures, lack of collaboration and culture. But at the same time the public organisations are following a similar path to that of the private, and areas have been found where there are little differences (e.g. development processes and purchaser-contractor relationships). Furthermore, the thesis has identified a large potential in the use of enterprise architecture for improving co-operation between business and IT organisations and in the purchaser-contractor relations. An architecture is an important prerequisite for dealing with the growing complexity in describing an enterprise and its business, information, applications and technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2006. , p. 62
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 11
Keywords [en]
E-government, e-services, business processes, development processes, stovepipe organisations, case study
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8879ISBN: 91-85317-24-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-8879DiVA, id: diva2:216069
Public defence
2006-06-08, Sundsvall, 00:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-06 Created: 2009-05-06 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Towards e-government: a survey of problems in organisational processes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards e-government: a survey of problems in organisational processes
2006 (English)In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 149-161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to look at process initiatives in the Swedish social insurance administration, focusing on the problems of crossing functional boundaries, co-ordinating processes over inter-organisational boundaries and the issue of whether to aim for radical or incremental change.

Design/methodology/approach - The survey involved data collection including a study of internal documents and 16 individual personal interviews.

Findings - The organisation experiences collaboration problems when cross-functional work and processes collide with the traditional and hierarchical command and control structures. These are not easily dismantled, meaning intensive work to change the culture and break functional mind-sets. Furthermore the administration struggles with and can benefit from co-ordination of processes over the inter-organisational boundaries. Changes in the customer front-line affect the rest of the organisation and its processes. The study has shown that both functional units and support processes deep inside the organisation, like the systems development process, are affected, and that deficiencies in the underlying structure and organisation are revealed. The process efforts so far are scattered, but it may be more important for organisations to deploy process change, as a continuous strategic initiative, rather than embarking on huge radical redesign programmes. Originality/value ? Little information regarding processes and the public sector exists, and problems likely to be encountered by other public organisations are pointed out. The survey also puts light on support processes - not only business processes - required for e-government.

Keywords
Electronic commerce, Insurance companies, Organizational processes, Social benefits, Sweden
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1132 (URN)10.1108/14637150610657503 (DOI)2-s2.0-33645518268 (Scopus ID)3495 (Local ID)3495 (Archive number)3495 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-10-28 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
2. Critical Success Factors from a Social Insurance Project in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical Success Factors from a Social Insurance Project in Sweden
2004 (English)In: Proceedings from IADIS International Conference e-Society 2004, IADIS Press , 2004, p. 87-94Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

After 30 years holding the same course, a new pension scheme and IT system was introduced in Sweden. It is described as one of Sweden�s largest IT projects with approx. 1 800 000 lines of code produced by the IT department of the Swedish social insurance administration. The administration uses a purchaser-contractor model for systems development where the IT department supervises the development and management of the IT facilities used by the national social insurance system. The project has been evaluated several times pointing out critical success factors for future large-scale projects. This study examines the critical success factors in relation to the purchaser-contractor model and the administration�s e-government efforts. Many factors refer to the roles in the purchaser-contractor model suggesting comprehensive views from all dimensions and communication and collaboration between the parts in the model. Another important factor is the project management. This suggests joint projects over the purchaser-contractor boundaries, uniting of overall leadership, overall planning, an operative project management, strong focus on goals and continuous follow-up. Other factors refer to the development process and it�s contents, suggesting a clarifying �baseline� after initial capturing of requirements not allowing more than regulated changes after the baseline. Special organisational structures are suggested for handling changes in requirements, for planning deliverables and for installation. Lastly, priority and support from top management was considered important. Furthermore the administration is on a path towards e-government, changing the organisation and processes in the customer front-line. A general process for management of the case workflow has been introduced, where the workflow is being managed in a general and similar way. A case management system has been developed that supports the general process. Web services for e-government will be ... (shortened)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IADIS Press, 2004
Keywords
Critical success factors, E-government, Systems development, Social insurance, Sweden
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-2966 (URN)2709 (Local ID)972-98947-5-2 (ISBN)2709 (Archive number)2709 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-10-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
3. Icebergs Drifting Apart? Customer Strategies Affecting Systems Development and Information Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Icebergs Drifting Apart? Customer Strategies Affecting Systems Development and Information Management
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference e-Society 2005, 2005, p. 619-624Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses upon the how the information and IT strategies and processes have to integrate with the e-service processes. A model consisting of three parts: IT strategy, information resources strategy part and customer/e-services strategy is presented. It is stressed that in order to develop cost effective and efficient e-services this "trinity approach" is needed. The development of new information and communication technologies and of new organisational forms reinforces that information management, here exemplified with electronic records management, and must be an integrated part of the development of e-services in any organisation. The customer strategies point the organisation in a direction where there is a need for a tighter integration between IT and customer-close activities, putting focus on the processes. Further, the role of IT is to provide an infrastructure; a platform upon which services and processes can be based. Based on the concept of a platform and modules, systems development projects can be made smaller and manageable. The trinity relation, and the order of dependencies, can also be found in the Balanced Scorecard, adding the perspectives of processes, finance and measurement. The cause-effects of the Balanced Scorecard show that IT can take a proactive role supporting processes and customer relations and, in the end, show financial rewards.

Keywords
Systems development, Information management
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3727 (URN)3904 (Local ID)972-8939-03-5 (ISBN)3904 (Archive number)3904 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-10-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
4. Co-ordination of Business and IT Development Processes - Managing Stovepiped Organisations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-ordination of Business and IT Development Processes - Managing Stovepiped Organisations
2005 (English)In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 53-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The background to the present study is supplied by two studies of a large Swedish public organisation. A strong hierarchy, which maintains a traditional view of functional departments as being the owners of IT products, creates stovepipes and silos, not only within the systems but also within the organisation, which tends to obstruct crossfunctional projects and the ability to ascertain general needs and requirements. The present study considers the integration of business and IT processes, focusing on the development process and the purchaser-contractor relations. The purpose is to find success factors, good examples and areas of improvement from private companies relating to the problems from the studied public organisation. Sixteen interviews with five Swedish banks and one insurance company appeared to suggest that the problems highlighted in previous studies, e.g. stovepipe systems and departments, were not recognised as significant problems within any of the interviewed organisations. In general, the development processes were considered well-oiled with little friction between departments, system owners, purchasers and contractors. In almost all interviews, it was considered that the integration of customer, information and IT was more cohesive than previously. The findings from the interviews have been categorised into nine factors or areas. Three general business environment factors - the history of organisational change and mergers, the overall economic situation and the strong customer focus - seem to have broken the functional mind-sets and sharpened and focused the organisations into a collaborative culture. Furthermore, a great deal of hard work appears to have been centered upon three factors relating to processes and the management of projects: the development processes are generally very well defined and well known internally, projects are smaller with modules and releases, and there is an open discussion about stovepiped departments and general requirements. Lastly, there are three areas of improvement: The role and competencies of the purchaser, the infrastructure and the need for an enterprise architecture, and the document interface including the use of RUP and UML.

Keywords
system development, information management, processes
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-5009 (URN)3894 (Local ID)3894 (Archive number)3894 (OAI)
Projects
PI - Publika Informationssystem
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-07-30 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
5. Managing Stovepiped Organisations - A Comparison of Public and Private Organisations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing Stovepiped Organisations - A Comparison of Public and Private Organisations
2006 (English)In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stovepiped systems and difficulties associated with managing cross-functional boundaries are problems that are hindering the successful implementation of customercentred systems and processes within public organisations. The present study covers public organisations, and discusses and analyses the results in relation to those from a previous study in the banking sector. While problems with stovepiped systems and departments have, in general, been solved in the banking sector, the results from the interviewed public organisations confirm that the stovepipe problem is still evident and that cross-functional collaboration, processes, customer focus and integration of services and channels all require additional improvement or development. The present study concludes that the goals with the highest priority for leaders in public organisations are not those associated with customer relations and that the political level rates higher than the customers’ demands. The public organisations are following a similar path to that of the private sector, but there are differences in both the time-frame and ability to implement changes due to weaker incentives for customer related work, and additionally, a larger organisational inertia of both culture and collaboration to overcome. Similarities are found in IT organisations and projects, and in the views regarding business organisations and the necessity for an enterprise architecture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet, 2006
Keywords
Public information systems, public sector, financial sector, systems development process, e-government, Swedish case study
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1267 (URN)4055 (Local ID)4055 (Archive number)4055 (OAI)
Projects
PI - Publika Informationssystem
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-07-30 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
6. Building the Enterprise Architecture: A Bottom-Up Evolution?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building the Enterprise Architecture: A Bottom-Up Evolution?
2007 (English)In: Advances in Information Systems Development: New Methods and Practice for the Networked Society. Volume 2, Issue PART 2., Springer, 2007, p. 287-298Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2007
Keywords
Enterprise architecture, business modelling, IT strategies, Swedish case study
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1310 (URN)10.1007/978-0-387-70802-7_24 (DOI)2-s2.0-84889072705 (Scopus ID)4056 (Local ID)978-0-387-70801-0 (ISBN)4056 (Archive number)4056 (OAI)
Conference
15th International Conference on Information Systems Development, ISD 2006; Budapest; Hungary; 31 August 2006 through 2 September 2006; Code 101021
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
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Output format
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