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Three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy used as a profilometer for the surface characterization of polyethylene-coated paperboard
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7240-3840
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1819-6200
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
Department of Industrial Engineering (DIIn), University of Salerno, Fisciano, SA, Italy .
2021 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 276-283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In food packaging, low-density polyethylene (PE) coating is applied to paperboards to act as a functional barrier and to provide the smoothness required to enhance printability. These characteristics are related to the material’s surface roughness, the parameter monitored during the manufacturing process. Measurement of surface roughness using optical profilometry has gained importance in the paper industry. The optical instruments used to measure surface roughness are limited spatially by the relationship with the light wavelength at which they operate. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is an alternative for overcoming the spatial resolution limitation, and the use of stereo-photogrammetry on SEM images can be seen as an alternative profilometry technique to measure surface roughness. In this investigation, the surface topography of industrially manufactured high-quality PE-coated paperboard was studied, comparing the SEM stereo-photogrammetry technique with a reference profilometry method, i. e., chromatic confocal microscopy (CCM). We found close agreement between the calculated surface roughness and the results of the techniques used and compared them according to the new ISO 25178 Geometric Product Specifications. We concluded that SEM stereo-photogrammetry provides comparable accurate alternative profilometry method for characterizing the surface roughness of PE-coated paperboard in the micrometer scale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2021. Vol. 36, no 2, p. 276-283
Keywords [en]
ISO 25178, optical profilometry, surface roughness, material characterization, inter-instrument comparison
National Category
Engineering and Technology Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-41378DOI: 10.1515/npprj-2021-0003ISI: 000663328700007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85102169449OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-41378DiVA, id: diva2:1533932
Available from: 2021-03-04 Created: 2021-03-04 Last updated: 2021-08-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Surface characterization methods for quality assessment of polyethylene-coated paperboard
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface characterization methods for quality assessment of polyethylene-coated paperboard
2021 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In manufacturing processes, the quality of a product often depends on its surface, and careful control of surface properties is critical to meet customer requirements. A thin layer of polyethylene (PE) is applied to paperboard to increase barrier functionality and high optical quality of the product. For PE-coated paperboard, product quality inspection is performed at the end of the manufacturing process by taking a portion of the reel to the laboratory for quality inspection. These associated offline characterization methods are destructive and time consuming and are representative of only a small portion of the product.

The overall goal of this thesis is to provide new methods to characterize the Surface properties of PE-coated paperboard. Specifically, to determine imaging techniques for measuring surface parameters that affect its barrier functionality and surface roughness.

In this thesis, two methods for surface characterization of PE-coated paperboard are presented to quantify the two most important product-related quality parameters, i.e. barrier functionality and optical quality, which are affected by the presence of defects in the coating and by the surface roughness of the product, respectively. First, a full-Stokes imaging polarimeter (FSIP) is used to detect the presence of PE-coated material and to distinguish between coated and uncoated samples at the pixel level. Second, a three-dimensional scanning electron microscope (3D SEM) is employed to calculate the Surface roughness of PE-coated paperboard. These surface characterization techniques offer an advantage over the industry standard due to the high speed and non-contact nature of the measurement, while increasing the throughput of the sample surface parameters studied.

A classification accuracy of 99, 74% is achieved using a FSIP to distinguish between PE- and non-PE-coated paperboard at pixel level. Using the 3D SEM technique to measure the topography of PE-coated samples results in a faster method that is comparable in accuracy to a chromatic confocal microscope (CCM). The surface roughness measured with the 3D SEM differs from the standard method by up to 6% and good agreement with statistical parameters is found.

In general, surface analysis of PE-coated is often a complex and difficult task for imaging techniques and suitable methods need to be evaluated for their sensitivity to measure the desired surface parameters. The presented characterization techniques inspect larger areas of PE-coated paperboard compared to current industry standards. These methods provide a quantitative solution for surface characterization to inspect the surface parameters necessary to assure the product’s quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mid Sweden University, 2021. p. 29
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 179
Keywords
polarization, surface characterization, Stokes polarimeter, polyethylene coating, paperboard
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-41710 (URN)978-91-88947-99-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2021-04-27, C312, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-03-24 Created: 2021-03-21 Last updated: 2021-03-27Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full textScopushttps://doi.org/10.1515/npprj-2021-0003

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Brugés Martelo, Javier MauricioThim, JanAndersson, MattiasLiguori, Consolatina

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Brugés Martelo, Javier MauricioThim, JanAndersson, MattiasLiguori, Consolatina
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Engineering and TechnologyPaper, Pulp and Fiber Technology

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