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Random and Hybrid Medium Access for M2M Communication: Scalability and Energy Analysis
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The term machine-to-machine (M2M) communication identifies any fully automated communication between intelligent devices, autonomous from human intervention. M2M communication is a key enabling technology for the Internet of Things (IoT), where it is used to provide ubiquitous connectivity between a large number of intelligent devices. M2M technologies find applications in numerous emerging use cases, such as smart metering, smart cities, intelligent transportation systems, eHealth monitoring, and surveillance/security. The service requirements placed onM2M communication can vary greatly depending on the intended area of application. In general, M2M applications are characterized by the high number of devices communicating with one another through sporadic and short transmissions. The devices are generally distributed over wide areas without easy access to the power grid, relying for their energy supply on batteries and energy harvesting. Therefore, the design of M2M communication technologies should meet the goal of supporting a large number of connected devices while retaining low energy consumption. One of the obstacles to achieving this goal is the high level of interference that can be present on the channel if a large number of M2M devices decide to transmit within a short period of time. To understand how to overcome this obstacle, it is necessary to explore new and old design options available in the channel access of M2M communication. The aim of this work is to study the performance and propose improvements to the channel access mechanisms of M2M communication technologies operating in the unlicensed frequency spectrum. The two technologies discussed in this thesis are IEEE 802.11ah and LoRaWAN. The performance metrics that have been considered consistently throughout this work are the scalability and energy efficiency of the investigated channel access mechanisms, which are especially critical to massive M2M.The first part of the thesis focuses on the IEEE 802.11ah standard and its medium access mechanism with station grouping. An analytical model of the grouping mechanism of IEEE 802.11ah combined with enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) is presented to assess the quality of service (QoS) differentiation available in IEEE 802.11ah. The throughput and delay of the access categories of EDCA are investigated for different group size and composition. The results reveal that grouping is effective at increasing the throughput of both high and low priority access categories up to 40% compared to the case without groups. A redesign of the access mechanism of IEEE 802.11ah is proposed to realize a hybrid channel access for energy efficient uplink data transmission.  The numerical results show that fora wide range of contending M2M devices and even for the relatively small frame size of 256 bytes, the use of an hybrid channel access can help reducing the average energy  consumption  of  the  devices  per  successful  uplink  frame  transmission.   In the  considered  scenarios,  the  proposed  MAC  mechanism  was  able  to  reduce  the average  energy  consumption  per  successful  transmission  up  to  55%  compared  to standard approach. The second part of the thesis focuses on LoRa, with an investigation on the performance of alternative random channel access mechanisms in LoRaWAN. The connection between the channel access mechanism and the intensity of interference in LoRa networks is characterized for pure Aloha, slotted Aloha, and CSMA channel access. The results reveal several assisting guidelines on the design and selection of a medium access solution within LoRa’s parameter space: device density, service area, and spreading factor allocation.  An out-of-band synchronization mechanism based on FM-Radio Data System (FM-RDS) is proposed to achieve synchronous channel access in LoRa.  The throughput and fairness results for the proposed communication show the clear advantages of synchronous communication in LoRa, meanwhile, the use of out-of-band synchronization reduces the usage of LoRa channels, improving the scalability.  The timing errors of FM-RDS are evaluated combining experimental approach and analytical methods. The observations reveal that despite the poor absolute synchronization, FM-RDS can effectively be used to realize time-slotted communication in LoRa, with performance similar to those obtained by more accurate but expensive time-dissemination technologies.  Finally, a comprehensive model of the interference in neighboring clusters of LoRa devices is proposed, highlights the disruptive effects of the inter-cluster interference on the transmissions success probability, particularly for the devices using the largest spreading factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2020. , p. 94
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 320
Keywords [en]
M2M, LoRa, IEEE 802.1ah, energy, mathematical modeling
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-39008ISBN: 978-91-88947-46-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-39008DiVA, id: diva2:1429825
Public defence
2020-06-11, Zoom, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbete opublicerat: delarbete 5 inskickat

At the time of the doctoral defence the following paper was unpublished: paper 5 submitted

Available from: 2020-05-18 Created: 2020-05-12 Last updated: 2020-05-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Modeling of Enhanced Distributed Channel Access with Station Grouping: A Throughput Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling of Enhanced Distributed Channel Access with Station Grouping: A Throughput Analysis
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2018 (English)In: Proc. IEEE 88th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC'18-fall), Chicago, USA, Aug. 2018., IEEE conference proceedings, 2018, article id 8690814Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Machine to Machine (M2M) communication networksare expected to connect a large number of power constrained devices in long range applications with differentquality of service (QoS) requirements. Medium access control with QoS support such as the Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) defined by IEEE 802.11e provides traffic differentiation and corresponding priority classes, which guarantees QoSaccording to the needs of applications. In this paper, we employa station grouping mechanism for enhancing the scalability of EDCA to handle the massive number of access attempts expected in large M2M networks. Furthermore, we develop a discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) model to analyze the performance of EDCA with station grouping. Using the developed DTMC model, we calculate throughput for each access category as well as for different combinations of grouping and EDCA parameters. Thenumerical results show that the model can precisely reveal the behavior of EDCA mechanism. Moreover, it is demonstrated that employing the proposed grouping mechanism for EDCA increasesthe normalized throughput significantly for all classes of priority.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2018
Keywords
EDCA, IEEE 802.11e, Grouping, Throughput
National Category
Computer Engineering Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34526 (URN)10.1109/VTCFall.2018.8690814 (DOI)000468872400263 ()2-s2.0-85064912874 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IEEE 88th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC'18-fall), Chicago, USA, 27-30 Aug. 2018
Projects
TIMELINESSSMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2020-05-12Bibliographically approved
2. Hybrid MAC Mechanism for Energy Efficient Communication in IEEE 802.11ah
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid MAC Mechanism for Energy Efficient Communication in IEEE 802.11ah
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), IEEE, 2017, p. 1295-1300, article id 7915550Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many applications for machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are characterized by large numbers of devices with sporadic transmissions and subjected to low energy budgets. This work addresses the importance of energy consumption by proposing a new Medium Access Control (MAC) mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of IEEE 802.11ah, a standard targeting M2M communication. We propose to use the features of IEEE 802.11ah MAC to realize a hybrid contention-reservation mechanism for the transmission of uplink traffic. In the proposed mechanism, any device with a buffered packet will first notify the Access Point (AP) during a contention phase before being given a reserved timeslot for the data transmission. We develop a mathematical model to analyse the energy consumption ofthe proposed mechanism and of IEEE 802.11ah. The results show that for a monitoring scenario, the proposed contention reservation mechanism reduces the energy consumption for a successful uplink data transmission by up to 55%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Keywords
Energy efficiency, IEEE 802.11ah, M2M communication, MAC protocol, RAW.
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30601 (URN)10.1109/ICIT.2017.7915550 (DOI)000404252400214 ()2-s2.0-85019602445 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-1-5090-5320-9 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
18th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT'17), Toronto, Canada, March 2017.
Projects
M2M COMM
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-04-18 Created: 2017-04-18 Last updated: 2020-05-12Bibliographically approved
3. Interference Modelling in a Multi-Cell LoRa System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interference Modelling in a Multi-Cell LoRa System
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2018 (English)In: 2018 14th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), IEEE, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As the market for low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies expands and the number of connected devices increases, it is becoming important to investigate the performance of LPWAN candidate technologies in dense deployment scenarios. In dense deployments, where the networks usually exhibit the traits of an interference-limited system, a detailed intra- and inter-cell interference analysis of LPWANs is required. In this paper, we model and analyze the performance of uplink communication of a LoRa link in a multi-cell LoRa system. To such end, we use mathematical tools from stochastic geometry and geometric probability to model the spatial distribution of LoRa devices. The model captures the effects of the density of LoRa cells and the allocation of quasi-orthogonal spreading factors (SF) on the success probability of the LoRa transmissions. To account for practical deployment of LoRa gateways, we model the spatial distribution of the gateways with a Poisson point process (PPP) and Matèrn hard-core point process (MHC). Using our analytical formulation, we find the uplink performance in terms of success probability and potential throughput for each of the available SF in LoRa’s physical layer. Our results show that in dense multi-cell LoRa deployment with uplink traffic, the intercell interference noticeably degrades the system performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
stochastic geometry, interference modelling, LoRa
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34715 (URN)10.1109/WiMOB.2018.8589100 (DOI)000459858400010 ()2-s2.0-85060784032 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-6876-4 (ISBN)
Conference
The 14th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Limassol, Cyprus, October 15-17, 2018
Projects
TIMELINESS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-10-12 Created: 2018-10-12 Last updated: 2020-05-12Bibliographically approved
4. LoRa beyond ALOHA: An Investigation of Alternative Random Access Protocols
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LoRa beyond ALOHA: An Investigation of Alternative Random Access Protocols
2020 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

We present a stochastic geometry-based model to investigate alternative medium access choices for LoRaWAN a widely adopted low-power wide-area networking (LPWAN) technology for the Internet-of-things (IoT). LoRaWAN adoption is driven by its simplified network architecture, air interface, and medium access. The physical layer, known as LoRa, provides quasi-orthogonal virtual channels through spreading factors (SFs) and time-power capture gains. However, the adopted pure ALOHA access mechanism suffers, in terms of scalability, under the same-channel same-SF transmissions from a large number of devices. In this paper, our objective is to explore access mechanisms beyond-ALOHA for LoRaWAN. Using recent results on time- and power-capture effects of LoRa, we develop a unified model for the comparative study of other choices, i.e., slotted ALOHA and carrier-sense multiple access (CSMA). The model includes the necessary design parameters of these access mechanisms, such as guard time and synchronization accuracy for slotted ALOHA, carrier sensing threshold for CSMA. It also accounts for the spatial interaction of devices in annular shaped regions, characteristic of LoRa, for CSMA. The performance derived from the model in terms of coverage probability, throughput, and energy efficiency are validated using Monte-Carlo simulations. Our analysis shows that slotted ALOHA indeed has higher reliability than pure ALOHA but at the cost of lower energy efficiency for low device densities. Whereas, CSMA outperforms slotted ALOHA at smaller SFs in terms of reliability and energy efficiency, with its performance degrading to pure ALOHA at higher SFs.

Keywords
Interference, Multiaccess communication, Logic gates, Modulation, Analytical models, Scalability, Synchronization, Energy efficiency, Internet-of-things, LoRa, Low-power wide-area networks, Medium access
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38600 (URN)10.1109/TII.2020.2977046 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-03-09 Created: 2020-03-09 Last updated: 2020-05-12Bibliographically approved
5. Synchronous LoRa Communication by Exploiting Large-Area out-of-band Synchronization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synchronous LoRa Communication by Exploiting Large-Area out-of-band Synchronization
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-39007 (URN)
Available from: 2020-05-12 Created: 2020-05-12 Last updated: 2020-05-15Bibliographically approved

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Beltramelli, Luca

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1234563 of 6
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