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Some Approaches to Eco-Friendly Products from Natural Matrices
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9468-0099
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Sustainable development
Hållbar utveckling
Abstract [en]

Since the onset of the industrial and chemical revolution, humans have caused immense damages to the surrounding flora and fauna. Effective methods for wood protection measures proved to be toxic; fossil fuels contribute to global warming and pesticides can be detected in the air, water, and soil. It is abundantly clear that efforts to find eco-friendly products are needed, while simultaneously providing the necessary incentives for sustainable worldwide development. Using renewable resources play a critical role in this shift towards circular economies.

Wood has long been used as a renewable resource in high demand, but its susceptibility to attack by wood-decaying fungi mean that most European woods need to be protected against these fungi before outdoor use. We showed that fractionating turpentine, a pulp and paper mill by-product, increased antifungal efficacy by concentrating bioactive oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Based on this result, recombinations of the fractions were shown to exhibit synergistic effects that enable a more efficient product utilisation. In addition, this approach enabled putative identifications of previously unknown Picea abies turpentine constituents present at low levels.

For a carbon-neutral society, production of biofuels using oleaginous yeast to convert lignocellulosic biomass into fuel has been hailed as a next-generation source of bioenergy. However, lignocellulose biofuel production by microorganisms is not straightforward and one challenge is the formation of microbe-toxic monomers, such as vanillin, during lignin degradation. The oleaginous yeast Cystobasidium laryngis and other potential oil-producing yeasts were screened for their viability and vanillin biotransformation capabilities. To this end, a mass chromatographic peak extraction tool termed TMATE was developed. Vanillyl alcohol was found to be the main product following vanillin degradation.

The detrimental health and ecological effects of pesticides highlight the urgency for alternative crop protection measures, such as biological insect control and semiochemicals. In this regard, we present an essential step towards understanding the varied chemical ecology of microbe-insect interactions. Our methodology and findings provide cues with high information value that can be used to develop well-informed and potentially sustainable pest management regimes by, for example, the push-pull methodology using live yeasts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2020. , p. 96
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 312
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38176ISBN: 978-91-88947-13-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-38176DiVA, id: diva2:1382673
Public defence
2020-01-31, O102, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 1 (inskickat), delarbete 2 (accepterat), delarbete 4 (manuskript).

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 1 (submitted), paper 2 (accepted), paper 4 (manuscript).

Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-03 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A screening study for antifungal activity of fractionated turpentine on wood-decaying fungi: in vitro, microcosm and field experiments.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A screening study for antifungal activity of fractionated turpentine on wood-decaying fungi: in vitro, microcosm and field experiments.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38175 (URN)
Available from: 2020-01-02 Created: 2020-01-02 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
2. Antifungal efficiency of individual compounds and evaluation of non-linear effects by recombining fractionated turpentine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antifungal efficiency of individual compounds and evaluation of non-linear effects by recombining fractionated turpentine
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2020 (English)In: Microchemical journal (Print), ISSN 0026-265X, E-ISSN 1095-9149, Vol. 153, article id 104325Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A combination between a reductive and a holistic assay was employed to investigate whole fraction, synergistic, antagonistic and individual compound efficacy of vacuumdistilled turpentine fractions against the economically important brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana. The fungus was subjected to recombinations of turpentine fractions at a concentration of 1000 ppm. All combinations exhibited useful antifungal properties, but some antifungal mixtures showed a more pronounced effect than the expected level of inhibition. Synergistic effects by a two-fold factor and minor antagonistic effects were observed. Complete growth inhibition of C. puteana was observed by a fraction obtained after distilling 1 L turpentine at 111–177°C (0.5 mbar) as well as by mixing it with another fraction withdrawn at 70–79°C (0.5 mbar). Chemical compositions of distilled fractions were determined through GC–MS analysis and Orthogonal Partial Least Squares (OPLS) multivariate data analysis of GC–MS chromatograms was employed to zoom in on the most active compounds responsible for antifungal activity. Isomers of epicubenol, the hydrocarbon aromatic compound ar-himachalene and α-cadinol are suggested as effective antifungal compounds. In addition, a subsequent fractionation of the most effective fraction was performed with preparatory gas chromatography and subfractions showed similar or better efficacy than previously observed. Our work demonstrates the possibility to retain adequate synergistic antifungal efficiency and offers an opportunity to explore the effects of individual compounds originating from the same crude sample.

Keywords
Turpentine composition, Bioassa, yConiophora puteana, Growth inhibition, Fractions, Synergism, Antagonism
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38174 (URN)10.1016/j.microc.2019.104325 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-01-02 Created: 2020-01-02 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
3. Biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol by a novel strain of Cystobasidium laryngis isolated from decaying wood
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol by a novel strain of Cystobasidium laryngis isolated from decaying wood
2018 (English)In: AMB Express, ISSN 2191-0855, E-ISSN 2191-0855, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vanillin is an aromatic aldehyde found as a component of lignocellulosic material, and in the cured pods of orchidaceae plants. Like other phenolic substances, vanillin has antimicrobial activity and can be extracted from lignin either by a thermo-chemical process or through microbial degradation. Vanillin, can serve as a model monomer in biodegradation studies of lignin. In the present study, a yeast isolated from decaying wood on the Faroe Islands, was identified as Cystobasidium laryngis strain FMYD002, based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. It demonstrated the ability to convert vanillin to vanillyl alcohol, as detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight. Structural analysis of vanillyl alcohol was carried out by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and H-1 NMR spectroscopy, and further verified by synthesis. The reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol has been documented for only a few species of fungi. However, to our knowledge, this biotransformation has not yet been reported for basidiomycetous yeast species, nor for any representative of the subphylum Pucciniomycotina. The biotransformation capability of the present strain might prove useful in the industrial utilisation of lignocellulosic residues.

Keywords
Vanillin, Cystobasidium, Bioconversion, Biodegradation, Cystobasidiomycetes, Rhodotorula
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34517 (URN)10.1186/s13568-018-0666-4 (DOI)000442555800002 ()30143905 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052069822 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-26 Created: 2018-09-26 Last updated: 2020-01-03Bibliographically approved
4. TMATE: An R package for biotransformation product discovery and the application of biodegradation products in chemotyping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>TMATE: An R package for biotransformation product discovery and the application of biodegradation products in chemotyping
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38180 (URN)
Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
5. Yeast Volatomes Differentially Affect Larval Feeding in an Insect Herbivore
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Yeast Volatomes Differentially Affect Larval Feeding in an Insect Herbivore
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2019 (English)In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 85, no 21, article id e01761-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Yeasts form mutualistic interactions with insects. Hallmarks of this interaction include provision of essential nutrients, while insects facilitate yeast dispersal and growth on plant substrates. A phylogenetically ancient chemical dialogue coordinates this interaction, where the vocabulary, the volatile chemicals that mediate the insect response, remains largely unknown. Here, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by hierarchical cluster and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analyses, to profile the volatomes of six Metschnikowia spp., Cryptococcus nemorosus, and brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The yeasts, which are all found in association with insects feeding on foliage or fruit, emit characteristic, species-specific volatile blends that reflect the phylogenetic context. Species specificity of these volatome profiles aligned with differential feeding of cotton leafworm (Spodoprera littoralis) larvae on these yeasts. Bioactivity correlates with yeast ecology; phylloplane species elicited a stronger response than fruit yeasts, and larval discrimination may provide a mechanism for establishment of insect-yeast associations. The yeast volatomes contained a suite of insect attractants known from plant and especially floral headspace, including (Z)-hexenyl acetate, ethyl (2E,4Z)-deca-2,4-dienoate (pear ester), (3E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT), linalool, alpha-terpineol, beta-myrcene, or (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. A wide overlap of yeast and plant volatiles, notably floral scents, further emphasizes the prominent role of yeasts in plant-microbe-insect relationships, including pollination. The knowledge of insect-yeast interactions can be readily brought to practical application, as live yeasts or yeast metabolites mediating insect attraction provide an ample tool-box for the development of sustainable insect management. IMPORTANCE Yeasts interface insect herbivores with their food plants. Communication depends on volatile metabolites, and decoding this chemical dialogue is key to understanding the ecology of insect-yeast interactions. This study explores the volatomes of eight yeast species which have been isolated from foliage, from flowers or fruit, and from plant-feeding insects. These yeasts each release a rich bouquet of volatile metabolites, including a suite of known insect attractants from plant and floral scent. This overlap underlines the phylogenetic dimension of insect-yeast associations, which according to the fossil record long predate the appearance of flowering plants. Volatome composition is characteristic for each species, aligns with yeast taxonomy, and is further reflected by a differential behavioral response of cotton leafworm larvae, which naturally feed on foliage of a wide spectrum of broad-leaved plants. Larval discrimination may establish and maintain associations with yeasts and is also a substrate for designing sustainable insect management techniques.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37671 (URN)10.1128/AEM.01761-19 (DOI)000490946700023 ()31444202 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85073483905 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-13 Created: 2019-11-13 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved

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PhD Thesis - Joel Ljunggren(2324 kB)10 downloads
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