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Enabling Time- and Mission-Critical Applications in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. (CSN)
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have gained importance as aflexible, easier deployment/maintenance and cost-effective alternative to wired networks,e.g., Fieldbus and Wired-HART, in a wide-range of applications. Initially,WSNs were mostly designed for military and environmental monitoringapplications where energy efficiency is the main design goal. The nodes in the network were expected to have a long lifetime with minimum maintenance while providing best-effort data delivery which is acceptable in such scenarios. With recent advances in the industrial domain, WSNs have been subsequently extended to support industrial automation applications such as process automation and control scenarios. However, these emerging applications are characterized by stringent requirements regarding reliability and real-time communications that impose challenges in the design of Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) to effectively support time- and mission-critical applications.

Typically, time- and mission-critical applications support different traffic categories ranging from relaxed requirements, such as monitoring traffic to firm requirements, such as critical safety and emergency traffic. The critical traffic is mostly acyclic in nature and occasionally occurs at unpredictable time instants. Once it is generated, it must be delivered within strict deadlines. Exceeding the delay bound could lead to system instability, economic loss, or even endanger human life in the working area. The situation becomes even more challenging when an emergency event triggers multiple sensor nodes to transmit critical traffic to the controller simultaneously. The unpredictability of the arrival of such a type of traffic introduces difficulties with regard to making a suitable scheduling that guarantees data delivery within deadline bounds. Existing industrial standards and related research work have thus far not presented a satisfactory solution to the issue. Therefore, providing deterministic and timely delivery for critical traffic and its prioritization over regular traffic is a vital research topic.

Motivated by the aforementioned challenges, this work aims to enable real-timecommunication for time- and mission-critical applications in IWSNs. In this context, improved Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are proposed to enablea priority-based channel access that provides a timely delivery for acyclic critical traffic. The proposed framework starts with a stochastic modelling of the network delay performance under a priority-oriented transmission scheme, followed by two MAC approaches. The first approach proposes a random Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) mechanism to improve the transmission efficiency of acyclic control traffic that is generated occasionally as a result of observations of an established tendency, such as closed-loop supervisory traffic. A Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model is provided to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol analytically in terms of the expected delay and throughput. Numerical results show that the proposed random CCA mechanism improves the shared slots approach in WirelessHART in terms of delay and throughput along with better transmission reliability.

The second approach introduces a slot-stealing MAC protocol based on a dynamic deadline-aware scheduling to provide deterministic channel access in emergency and event-based situations, where multiple sensor nodes are triggered simultaneously to transmit time-critical data to the controller. The proposed protocol is evaluated mathematically to provide the worst-case delay bound for the time-critical traffic and the numerical results show that the proposed approach outperforms TDMA-based WSNs in terms of delay and channel utilization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall, Sweden: Mid Sweden University , 2019. , p. 42
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 151
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35572ISBN: 978-91-88527-84-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-35572DiVA, id: diva2:1285496
Presentation
2019-01-30, M102, Sundsvall, 14:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-04 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Priority-Oriented Packet Transmissions in Internet of Things: Modeling and Delay Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Priority-Oriented Packet Transmissions in Internet of Things: Modeling and Delay Analysis
2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), IEEE, 2018, article id 8422699Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Priority-oriented packet transmission (PPT) has been a promising solution for transmitting time-critical packets in timely manner during emergency scenarios in Internet ofThings (IoT). In this paper, we develop two associated discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) models to analyze performance of the PPT in an IoT network. Using the proposed DTMC models, we investigate the effect of traffic prioritization interms of average packet delay for a synchronous medium access control (MAC) protocol. Furthermore, the results obtained from analytical models are validated via discrete-event simulations. Numerical results prove the accuracy of the models and reveal the behavior of priority based packet transmissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
IoT, WSN, WuR, delay, analysis, DTMC
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33670 (URN)10.1109/ICC.2018.8422699 (DOI)2-s2.0-85051436438 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-3180-5 (ISBN)978-1-5386-3181-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'18), Kansas, USA, May 2018
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)TIMELINESS
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-05-28 Created: 2018-05-28 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
2. PR-CCA MAC: A Prioritized Random CCA MAC Protocol for Mission-Critical IoT Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PR-CCA MAC: A Prioritized Random CCA MAC Protocol for Mission-Critical IoT Applications
2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), IEEE, 2018, article id 8423018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A fundamental challenge in Mission-Critical Internetof Things (MC-IoT) is to provide reliable and timely deliveryof the unpredictable critical traffic. In this paper, we propose an efficient prioritized Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in MC-IoT control applications. The proposed protocol utilizes a random Clear Channel Assessment (CCA)-based channel access mechanism to handlethe simultaneous transmissions of critical data and to reduce thecollision probability between the contending nodes, which in turn decreases the transmission latency. We develop a Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol analytically in terms of the expected delay and throughput. The obtained results show that the proposed protocolcan enhance the performance of the WirelessHART standard by 80% and 190% in terms of latency and throughput, respectively along with better transmission reliability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
IWSN, IoT, Determinism, MAC, Low latency
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33671 (URN)10.1109/ICC.2018.8423018 (DOI)2-s2.0-85051413092 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-3180-5 (ISBN)978-1-5386-3181-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'18), Kansas, USA, 20-24 May 2018.
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)TIMELINESSASIS
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-05-28 Created: 2018-05-28 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
3. A Delay-Bounded MAC Protocol for Mission- and Time-Critical Applications in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Delay-Bounded MAC Protocol for Mission- and Time-Critical Applications in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2018 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 2607-2616Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) designedfor mission- and time-critical applications require timelyand deterministic data delivery within stringent deadline bounds.Exceeding delay limits for such applications can lead to system malfunction or ultimately dangerous situations that can threaten human safety. In this paper, we propose SS-MAC, an efficient slot stealing MAC protocol to guarantee predictable and timely channel access for time-critical data in IWSNs. In the proposed SS-MAC, aperiodic time-critical traffic opportunistically steals time slots assigned to periodic non-critical traffic. Additionally, a dynamic deadline-based scheduling is introduced to provide guaranteed channel access in emergency and event-based situations where multiple sensor nodes are triggered simultaneously to transmit time-critical data to the controller. The proposed protocol is evaluated mathematically to provide the worst-case delay bound for the time-critical traffic. Performance comparisons are carried out between the proposed SS-MAC and WirelessHARTstandard and they show that, for the time-critical traffic, theproposed SS-MAC can achieve, at least, a reduction of almost 30% in the worst-case delay with a significant channel utilization efficiency.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32771 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2018.2793946 (DOI)000425981100048 ()2-s2.0-85041646182 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)
Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved

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Farag, Hossam

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