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Protected Attractions: Tourism and Wilderness in the Swedish Mountain Region
Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap. (ETOUR)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-8682-0442
2009 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Europe’s first national parks were established in northern Sweden in 1909 and this region has thus functioned as a protected and aesthetic pleasure landscape for a century. In 1996, due to the combination of spectacular natural environment and ancient Sami traditions the Laponian World Heritage Area was established here. In spite of local cultural history and contemporary land use practices, the Swedish northern mountains are often described as remnants of the pristine and as wilderness – defined as the opposite to culture – and for many, wilderness is an unproblematic category of nature. With a focus on touristic use of protected areas, this thesis examines the role of different interests, including power relations, in shaping dominant descriptions of landscapes. Investigated themes include how landscape values are expressed, interpreted and explained by visitors, as well as the influence of different ideas underlying nature conservation. Results show that tourists visit the mountains to experience nature, wilderness, and scenery, and to feel mental relaxation. The existence of marked hiking trails and facilities at tourist cabins are also of importance. The attractiveness of the mountains includes the combination of comfortable conditions and a perceived untouched landscape. Tourists perceive the area as wilderness and – at the same time – filled with tourist facilities and Sami culture such as reindeer herding activities. It is found that the perception of the mountains as a wild and scenic natural landscape has not changed much during the last century. In this thesis, the concept of wilderness is problematized and contested since it produces images and values that have unrecognized effects on how we perceive and manage landscapes, including their cultural attributes. This thesis applies a critical realism approach to conceptualize landscapes.

Abstract [sv]

I avhandlingen görs en analys av hur olika aktörer uppfattar, begreppsliggör och använder landskap. Det är en viktig del i att öka vår förståelse om rumsliga och tidsmässiga processer som påverkar landskapet. I norra Sverige inrättades Europas första nationalparker 1909. Trots kulturhistoria och dagens markanvändning beskrivs fjällen i norra Sverige ofta som vildmark. I denna sammanläggningsavhandling undersöks den turistiska användningen av skyddade områden och betydelsen av olika intressen i formandet av bilder av landskapet i Norrbottensfjällen. De huvudsakliga teman som undersöks är hur landskapets värden uttrycks, tolkas och förklaras av turister, liksom inverkan av olika idéer som ligger till grund för naturvården. Utifrån enkäter och intervjuer samt genom jämförelser med andra områden och över tiden, analyseras turisternas karaktäristika, deras beteenden och motiv till besök samt deras uppfattningar om landskapet.

 

Resultaten visar bland annat att turister besöker fjällen för att uppleva natur och vildmark samt för mental avkoppling. Turister uppfattar landskapet i norra Sverige som vildmark samtidigt som de uppskattar turistanläggningar med service, den samiska kulturen och renskötseln. Fjällens attraktion består av en kombination av service och orört landskapet. Resultaten visar att synen på fjällen som vildmark och naturlandskap i stort inte förändrats under det senaste århundradet. I denna avhandling problematiseras och ifrågasätts begreppet vildmark eftersom det skapar vissa bilder och värderingar om hur vi uppfattar och hanterar landskap.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm, 2009. , s. 52
Serie
Meddelanden från Kulturgeografiska institutionen ; 140
Nyckelord [sv]
Turism, turismforskning
Nationell ämneskategori
Kulturgeografi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-10584Lokalt ID: ETOUROAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-10584DiVA, id: diva2:280129
Disputation
2009-10-02, Stockholm, 13:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

At the time of the doctoral defence, the following paper had an other title: Changes in Visitor Demand: Interyear Comparisons of Swedish Hikers' Characteristics, Preferences and Experiences

Tillgänglig från: 2009-12-09 Skapad: 2009-12-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-09-10Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Protected areas as attractions
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Protected areas as attractions
2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 839-854Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This study explores protected areas as attractions and their influence on tourists’ behavior. The importance of differing protection status (national parks, world heritage sites, and biosphere reserves) is discussed. Data come from surveys conducted in protected areas in the Swedish mountain region. The results show that protection status matters to tourists, and it affects the decision to visit the area, but to a variable degree among the study sites. It is concluded that different protected area labels function as touristic markers but that the name national park has a stronger effect on tourists than the labels of world heritage site and biosphere reserve.

Nyckelord
behavior, markers, attraction systems, Swedish mountains, Turism, turismforskning
Nationell ämneskategori
Ekonomi och näringsliv
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8115 (URN)10.1016/j.annals.2007.03.011 (DOI)000250738100001 ()2-s2.0-34548771724 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Lokalt ID)ETOUR (Arkivnummer)ETOUR (OAI)
Anmärkning

VR-Environmental studies

Tillgänglig från: 2009-01-08 Skapad: 2009-01-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
2. A ticket to national parks? tourism, railways and the establishment of national parks in Sweden
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A ticket to national parks? tourism, railways and the establishment of national parks in Sweden
2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Tourism and National Parks: International Perspectives on Development, Histories and Change / [ed] Frost, W. and Hall, C.M., London: Routledge, 2009, s. 184-196Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
London: Routledge, 2009
Nyckelord
Turism, turismforskning
Nationell ämneskategori
Social och ekonomisk geografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8117 (URN)10.4324/9780203884201 (DOI)2-s2.0-84921354469 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Lokalt ID)978-0-415-47156-5 (ISBN)978-020388420-1 (ISBN)ETOUR (Arkivnummer)ETOUR (OAI)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-01-08 Skapad: 2009-01-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-09-22Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Wilderness and Culture: Tourist Views and Experiences in the Laponian World Heritage Area
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Wilderness and Culture: Tourist Views and Experiences in the Laponian World Heritage Area
2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 25, nr 7, s. 621-632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The Laponian World Heritage Area in northern Sweden was established due to the natural beauty and the history of the indigenous Sami reindeer culture. Laponia, which is often referred to as the last wilderness of Europe, is also of importance for tourists. This article investigates how the landscape of Laponia is viewed and experienced. Tourists were questioned to explore how they think about the kind of landscape they visit, and, more specifically, they were asked about the meaning of the concept of wilderness. It is found that wilderness is used as a description of a defined area with pristine nature, wild animals, and few human influences. The tourists see no contradiction in the idea that a place can be pristine, used for Sami practice, and at the same time developed for tourism. This article also discusses the implications of the concept of wilderness for place and people.

Nyckelord
perception, back-country hiker, Sami reindeer herding, nature conservation, Swedish mountains, tourism, Turism, turismforsknig
Nationell ämneskategori
Kulturgeografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8116 (URN)10.1080/08941920.2011.627911 (DOI)000304475300001 ()2-s2.0-84861508825 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Lokalt ID)ETOUR (Arkivnummer)ETOUR (OAI)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-01-08 Skapad: 2009-01-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Changes in Visitor Demand: Interyear Comparisons of Swedish Hikers' Characteristics, Preferences and Experiences
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Changes in Visitor Demand: Interyear Comparisons of Swedish Hikers' Characteristics, Preferences and Experiences
2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 11, nr Suppl 1, s. 38-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The focus of this study is a comparison over time between two visitor surveys

(1980 and 2003) conducted in northern Sweden. The aim is to analyze possible changes and

similarities over time in what attracts hikers to visit protected areas and if the type of visitor

has changed. Since comparisons over time are rare in tourism and outdoor recreation

research, this paper contributes to valuable empirical insights. Long-term data on tourism

and recreation is essential to assess visitor experiences and visitor impacts on the resource,

and for nature conservation management. The results reveal several variables that have been

stable over time. However, many changes have also occurred. For the visitors, it has become

more important with adventure and perils, services, marked hiking trails and accessibility,

and the average age among the hikers has become higher and they have reduced their length

of stay. In the second study, the hikers also accepted infrastructure to a greater extent. The

paper discusses possible implications of the changes found.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Routledge, 2011
Nyckelord
Outdoor recreation, nature-based tourism, attractiveness, service, protected area
Nationell ämneskategori
Social och ekonomisk geografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15468 (URN)10.1080/15022250.2011.638207 (DOI)000299873600003 ()2-s2.0-84859390690 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Lokalt ID)ETOUR (Arkivnummer)ETOUR (OAI)
Projekt
Hållbar turismutveckling i norra Lapplandsfjällen
Tillgänglig från: 2011-12-20 Skapad: 2011-12-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-08Bibliografiskt granskad

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