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Fair Treatment of Multicast Sessions and Their Receivers: Incentives for more efficient bandwidth utilization
Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier. (MUCOM, SensibleReality)
2007 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [sv]

Tjänster för strömmad media stiger kraftigt i popularitet, samtidigt som utbudet av denna typ av tjänster ökar. Internet protocol television (IPTV) med standardupplösning levereras redan till många hem, och högupplöst IPTV kommer att bli vanligt inom en relativt snar framtid. Mer avancerade tjänster, som tredimensionell TV och TV med fritt valbara vyer, står sedan på tur. Strömmad video är av naturen väldigt bandbreddskrävande, och denna utveckling kommer därför att sätta den befintliga nätverksinfrastrukturen på prov.

Multicast är mer bandbreddseffektivt än unicast för scenarion där många mottagare samtidigt är intresserade av samma data, vilket är fallet med populärt direktsänt material. Anledningen är att mottagarna av multicast-sessioner delar på resurserna via ett gemensamt transmissionsträd, där ingen data sänds mer än en gång över någon gren. Användningen av multicast kan därför generera stora besparingar av bandbredd. Internetleverantörerna har dock inga riktigt starka skäl för att stödja multicast, vilket medfört att spridningen varit långsam.

Vi föreslår att multicast-sessioner tilldelas mer bandbredd när det uppstår trafikstockningar i näten. Fördelningen baseras på antalet mottagare och datatakten som de erhåller, eftersom det är det som avgör graden av resursdelning. Vi anser att det är rättvist att ta hänsyn till detta, och kallar därför den föreslagna bandbreddsfördelningen multicast-favorable max-min fair. Vidare så presenteras två bandbreddstilldelningspolicyer som använder sig av olika mängd återkoppling för att uppnå fördelningar som ligger förhållandevis nära den föreslagna.

Vi föreslår även två mekanismer för kostnadsallokering, vilka bygger på antagandet att kostnaden för dataöverföring ska täckas av mottagarna. De föreslagna mekanismerna fördelar kostnaderna mellan mottagarna baserat på deras andel av resursutnyttjandet, vilket generellt är fördelaktigt för multicast-mottagare. De två mekanismerna för kostnadsallokering skiljer sig åt genom att den ena eftersträvar optimalt rättvis fördelning av kostnaderna, medan den andra kan ge rabatt till vissa mottagare. Rabatten möjliggör större grupper med mottagare, vilket även kan reducera kostnaderna för icke rabatterade mottagare.

Förslagen gör multicast mer attraktivt för användarna av strömmad media. Om förslagen implementerades i nätverk med multicast-stöd så skulle övriga Internetleverantörer bli tvungna att stödja multicast för att vara konkurrenskraftiga.

Abstract [en]

Media-streaming services are rapidly gaining in popularity, and new ones are knocking on the door. Standard-definition Internet protocol television (IPTV) has already entered many living rooms, and high-definition IPTV will become common property in the not too distant future. Then even more advanced and resource-demanding services, such as three-dimensional and free-view TV, are next in line. Video streaming is by nature extremely bandwidth intensive, and this development will put the existing network infrastructure to the test.

In scenarios where many receivers are simultaneously interested in the same data, which is the case with popular live content, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. The reason is that the receivers of a multicast session share the resources through a common transmission tree where data are only transmitted once along any branch. The use of multicast transmission can therefore yield huge bandwidth savings. There are however no really strong incentives for the Internet service providers (ISPs) to support multicast transmission, and the deployment has consequently been slow.

We propose that more bandwidth is allocated to multicast flows in the case of network congestion. The ratio is based upon the number of receivers and the bitrate that they are able to obtain, since this is what determines the degree of resource sharing. We believe that it is fair to take this into account, and accordingly call the proposed allocation multicast-favorable max-min fair. Further, we present two bandwidth-allocation policies that utilize different amount of feedback to perform allocations that are reasonable close to be multicast-favorable max-min fair.

We also propose two cost-allocation mechanisms that build upon the assumption that the cost for data transmission should be covered by the receivers. The mechanisms charge the receivers based on their share of the resources usage, which in general is favorable to multicast receivers. The two cost-allocation mechanisms differ in that one strives for optimum fair cost allocations, whereas the other might give discounts to some receivers. The discounts facilitate larger groups of receivers, which can provide cheaper services for the non-discounted receivers as well.

The proposals make multicast transmission more attractive to the users of media-streaming services. If the proposals were implemented in multicast-enabled networks, the rest of the ISPs would be forced to support multicast, to stay competitive.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden Univ , 2007.
Serie
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 38
Emneord [en]
bandwidth allocation, cost allocation, fairness, multicast
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-43ISBN: 978-91-85317-74-5 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-43DiVA, id: diva2:2013
Disputas
2007-12-05, L111, L-huset, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-12-05 Laget: 2007-12-05 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. A Bandwidth-Allocation Policy Taking Layered Video Multicast into Consideration
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A Bandwidth-Allocation Policy Taking Layered Video Multicast into Consideration
2004 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the Eighth IASTED International Conference on Internet and Multimedia Systems and Applications, Acta Press , 2004, s. 347-352Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

As multicast is slowly gaining in support, the concept of multicast fairness is starting to attract some attention. Should multicast flows be favored at the expense of unicast flows, and if so to what extent? Allocating link bandwidth in proportion to the logarithm of the number of receivers of a flow has been proposed. That kind of policies favors multicast flows, without totally starving unicast flows. A problem of maintaining such policies emerges if layered multicast flows are introduced, since each layer is transmitted to a separate multicast IP address and will therefore be treated as an individual flow. Layered multicast flows will consequently be allocated too much bandwidth. In this paper, a logarithmic bandwidth-allocation policy that copes with layered multicast is proposed and evaluated through simulations. The results confirm that the proposal meets the expectations by preserving the intended fairness properties in scenarios with layered multicast traffic.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Acta Press, 2004
Emneord
Multicast, Fairness, Bandwidth Allocation, Layered Video
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-385 (URN)000228483400062 ()0-88986-420-9 (ISBN)
Konferanse
8th IASTED International Conference on Internet and Multimedia Systems and Applications, Kauai, HI, Aug 16-18, 2004
Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-12-05 Laget: 2007-12-05 Sist oppdatert: 2011-04-19bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Fair Allocation of Link Capacity through Feedback of Bottleneck Information
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Fair Allocation of Link Capacity through Feedback of Bottleneck Information
2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Digital Telecommunications, , 2006. ICDT '06. International Conference on 29-31 Aug. 2006, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, s. 59-59Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we propose a bandwidth-allocation policy that is fairer and more bandwidth efficient than existing policies. The improvements are achieved through feedback of information regarding the largest bottleneck link of the downstream receivers of each flow. According to this information, the router nodes can avoid allocating more bandwidth to a flow than will be of use to at least one of its receivers. The proposed bandwidth-allocation policy, called bottleneck-feedback and receiver dependent (BFRD), is simulated with promising results

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
IEEE conference proceedings, 2007
Emneord
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-386 (URN)10.1109/ICDT.2006.35 (DOI)0-7695-2650-0 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-12-05 Laget: 2007-12-05 Sist oppdatert: 2013-03-25bibliografisk kontrollert
3. Fairer Allocation of Link Capacity Through Information Feedback
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Fairer Allocation of Link Capacity Through Information Feedback
2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the Fifth IASTED International Conference on Communication Systems and Networks, 2006, s. 143-148Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a bandwidth-allocation policy that is fairer and more bandwidth efficient than any other existing policy, is presented. The fairness is measured with the multicast-favorable max-min fairness (MFMF) definition as reference. The improvements introduced by our policy are achieved through feedback of information regarding the bottleneck link of all the downstream receivers of each flow. According to this information, the router nodes can locally allocate the link capacities in line with the MFMF definition.

Emneord
Fairness, Bandwidth Allocation, Multicast
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-387 (URN)2-s2.0-56149101797 (Scopus ID)4119 (Lokal ID)978-0-88986-606-5 (ISBN)0889866066 (ISBN)4119 (Arkivnummer)4119 (OAI)
Konferanse
5th IASTED International Conference on Communication Systems and Networks, Aug 28-30, 2006, palma de Mallorca, Spain
Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-12-05 Laget: 2007-12-05 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-13bibliografisk kontrollert
4. Revised Definition of Multicast-Favorable Max-Min Fairness
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Revised Definition of Multicast-Favorable Max-Min Fairness
2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the Third IASTED International Conference on Communications and Computer Networks, CCN 2006IASTED International Conference on Communications and Computer Networks, Lima, Peru, October 2006, ACTA Press, 2006, s. 63-68Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

In scenarios where many receivers simultaneously are interested in the same data, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. As a consequence, the benefit of multicast transmission is growing with the rising interest in video-streaming services. Therefore, the concept of multicast fairness has started to attract attention, it might be sensible to prioritize multicast flows and thereby create an incentive for the use of multicast transmission. The most general definition of multicast fairness, which prioritizes multicast traffic, is probably multicast-favorable max-min fairness (MFMF). However, in this paper it is shown that the MFMF definition is afflicted with a flaw that for certain traffic scenarios leads to intuitively unfair bandwidth allocations. The flaw is analyzed whereupon a revised version of the definition is proposed, which solves the problem. A description of how the definition can be used to evaluate the fairness of other bandwidth allocations is also included.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
ACTA Press, 2006
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-388 (URN)2-s2.0-34848920961 (Scopus ID)4122 (Lokal ID)0-88986-630-9 (ISBN)978-088986630-0 (ISBN)4122 (Arkivnummer)4122 (OAI)
Konferanse
3rd IASTED International Conference on Communications and Computer Networks, CCN 2006; Lima; Peru; 4 October 2006 through 6 October 2006; Code 70933
Prosjekter
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-12-05 Laget: 2007-12-05 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-13bibliografisk kontrollert
5. Multicast-Favourable Max-Min Fairness: The Definition and How to Comply
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Multicast-Favourable Max-Min Fairness: The Definition and How to Comply
2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Computers and Applications, ISSN 1206-212X, E-ISSN 1925-7074, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

In scenarios where many receivers simultaneously are interested in the same data, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. Consequently, the benefit of multicast transmission is growing with the rising interest in video-streaming services. To prioritize multicast flows and thereby create an incentive for the use of multicast transmission might therefore make sense. Research in this area is usually denoted multicast fairness. In this paper, we present a general definition of multicast fairness, named multicastfavourable max-min fairness (MFMF), which specifies the properties a global bandwidth allocation should possess to be considered fair to both unicast and multicast flows. A description of how the definition can be used to evaluate the fairness of other bandwidth allocations is also included. Further, two bandwidth-allocation policies that aim at producing allocations close to fulfilling the MFMF definition are presented.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Calgary, Canada: ACTA Press, 2011
Emneord
Fairness, Resource allocation, Multicast, Utility
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-389 (URN)10.2316/Journal.202.2011.1.202-2567 (DOI)2-s2.0-79957848349 (Scopus ID)STC (Lokal ID)STC (Arkivnummer)STC (OAI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-12-05 Laget: 2007-12-05 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-13bibliografisk kontrollert
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